Proceedings of the 10th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering
Table of Contents

1.0 Opening Ceremony and State-of-the-Art Lectures

1.0.01 Opening Address Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 1 Scientific Opening Lecture 1.0.02 The Self-Organrzing Map, a Possible Model of Brain Maps Kohonen, Teuvo ..... 5 State-of-the-Art Lectures 1.0.03 Artificial Heart History and Present Status Akutsu, Tetsuzo ..... 9 1.0.04 Biosensors Turner, Anthony P.F. ..... 11 1.0.05 Developments in Real Time Volumetric Scanning von Ramm, Olaf T. ..... 13 1.0.06 Nonlinear Systems in Medicine Engelbrecht, Juri ..... 15 1.0.07 Fibre-Optic Sensors and their Application in Medical Diagnosis Öberg, P. Åke ..... 17

1.1 Track I: Bioengineering

1.1.1 Technology for Disabled and Elderly 1.1.1.01 Alarm Systems and Video Communication. Old Problems Solved by Modern Technology Lindström, Jan-lngvar ..... 21 1.1.1.02 Smarter Homes for Independent Living Ekberg, Jan ..... 23 1.1.1.03 Universal Access to Terminals and Computer Systems Emiliani, Pier Luigi ..... 25 1.1.1.04 Support Infrastructure around and in the Home to Increase Independence for People with Disabilities Soede, M., Willems, Ch. ..... 27 1.1.1.05 Videotelephone Services for Elderly and Mobility Impaired People Perälä, Jukka, Lounela-Stenberg, Lea, Törönen, Juha, Lehikoinen, Panu ..... 29 1.1.2 Home Health Care 1.1.2.01 Attempts of Fully Automated Home Health Monitoring Systems Togawa, Tatsuo, Tamura, Toshiyo, Kimura, Yuichi, Ogawa, Mitsuro ..... 31 1.1.2.02 ISDN Technology for Cancer Patient Assistance at Home Sacile, Roberto, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Repetto, Lazzaro, Venturino, Antonella ..... 33 1.1.2.03 Multipurpose Electronic Door Bell Warning System Using Multiple Sensing Devices for Deaf and Hearing Handicapped Debnath, Niranjan, Mishra, B.N., Aljunid, Syed Abdul Kader ..... 35 1.1.2.04 Baby Alarm System for Deaf Parents having Multiple Sensory Stimulation Debnath, Niranjan, Leman, Zainab, Aljunid, Syed Abdul Kader ..... 37 1.1.2.05 Dynamic Characteristics of a Simple Eye-tracking Pointer Hashiguchi, Sumihisa, Murakami, Hiroshi, Wang, Hua-gang, Zhou, Xinxin, Ohki, Makoto, Miyahara, Shinji ..... 39 1.1.2.06 Recording Methods for Home Monitoring Taskinen, Jari, Karlsson, Matti, Salo, Juha, Eskola, Hannu ..... 41 1.1.3 Engineering in Health Care 1.1.3.01 Experiences in Transformation of the Hungarian Health Care System Nagy, Csaba, Richter, Nandor ..... 43 1.1.3.02 Position and Importance of the Clinical Engineering Education in Hungary Forgacs, Lajos, Darday, Vilmos ..... 45 1.1.3.03 Experiences from Refinements of Medical and Technical Research Results at Umeå University into Commercial Products for the Health Care Market Lindahl. Olof ..... 47 1.1.3.04 Quantitative Assessment of Solute Transport in Peritoneal Dialysis Waniewski, Jacek, Heimbürger, Olof, Werynski, Andrzej, Lindholm, Bengt ..... 49 1.1.3.05 Hand Dynamometers Set and their Application in the Clinic Practice Smirnov, Georgy, Veshutkin, Vladimir, Radau, Una, Maksimova, Lubov, Kostjunin, Andrey, Donchenko, Ekaterina, Petrov, Sergey, Mitrofanov, Nikolay, Chernov, Vladimir, Karpovskiy, Vladimir ..... 51 1.1.3.06 Quality of Hemoglobin Analyses in Kaunas City Tarutiene, Birute, Kebeikis, Sarunas, Svensson, Kent, Svensson, Owe ..... 53 1.1.4 Clinical Engineering 1.1.4.01 Clinical Engineering in the New Communication Age Pallikarakis, Nicolas ..... 55 1.1.4.02 New Challenges for the Management of a Clinical Engineering Department Karp, Pekka ..... 57 1.1.4.03 Implementation and Evaluation of Hospital Quality Systems for Clinical Engineering Bojsen, J., Georgsson, G., Grimnes, S., Karp, P., Lofstedt, L., Thordn, U., Vauramo, E ..... 59 1.1.4.04 Clinical Engineers as Innovators and Product Developers Öberg, P. Åke ..... 61 1.1.4.05 Clinical Engineering and Internet Rainer, Werner, Cappa, Paolo ..... 63 1.1.5 Physiological Measurements 1.1.5.01 Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Concentration in Isolated Organs by Nitric Oxide Microsensor Mochizuki, Seiichi, Goto, Masami, Fukuhiro, Yoshiaki, Tsujioka, Katsuhiko, Kajiya, Fumihiko ..... 65 1.1.5.02 EMF Force Sensor - a Flexible and Sensitive Electret Film for Physiological Applications Lekkala, Jukka, Poramo, Risto, Nyholm, Krister, Kaikkonen, Timo ..... 67 1.1.5.03 Dithering with Noise and Interference for Accurate Data Acquisition Aumala, Olli ..... 69 1.1.5.04 A Software Tool to Extend the Quantification Power of a Virological Analysis Giacomini, Mauro, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Lillo, Flavia, McDermott, Jennifer, Varnier, Oliviero E. ..... 71 1.1.5.05 The Data Acquisition System for Functional Clinical Researches Allen, George, Zagursky, Valery ..... 73 1.1.5.06 Non-lnvasive Topographical Investigation of Functional Parameters in the Human Skin Kessler, Manfred, Krug, Alfons, Höper, Jens ..... 75 1.1.5.07 General-Purpose Signal Analysis and Processing Tool for Physiological Signals Sorsa, Heli, Turjanmaa, Väinö, Jurvelin, Jukka, Korhonen, Ilkka ..... 77 1.1.6 Physiological Measurements of the Circulatory System 1.1.6.01 Central Hemodynamics and ECG Ambulatory Monitoring Device with Signals Recording on PCMCIA Flash Memory Cards Cybulski, G., Ksiazkiewicz, A., Lukasik, W., Niewiadomski, W., Palko, T. ..... 79 1.1.6.02 Local Haemodynamic Response of Hip and Calcaneus in Coxarthrosis Mertens, Andris, Vitola, Maruta, Curiskis, Andris ..... 81 1.1.6.03 An Integrated Analysis System for Electrophysiological Testing of the Heart Nousiainen, Juha, Mäkynen, Pekka, Anttonen, Olli, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 83 1.1.6.04 Windows based System for Electrophysiology Studies of the Heart Vänttinen, Henri, Nousiainen, Juha, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 85 1.1.6.05 Revisiting the Evaluation of the Performance of Fluid-Filled Catheters Gerard, Paul, Pochet, Thierry, Lambermont, Bernard, Detry, Olivier, D'Orio, Vincent, Defraigne, Jean-Olivier, Fossion, Anny, Limet, Raymond ..... 87 1.1.6.06 Comparison of Time-Frequency Distributions in the Heart Sounds Analysis Ritola, Jarmo, Lukkarinen, Sakari ..... 89 1.1.6.07 Frequency Response Measurements on Commercially Available Stethoscopes Korhonen, Pekka, Lukkarinen, Sakari, Sepponen, Raimo, Backman, Juha, Ruotoistenmäki, Heikki, Rajala, Kimmo ..... 91 1.1.6.08 Blood Platelet Kinetics in Normal Subjects and in Patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Lintunen, Pasi, Savolainen, Sauli, Koponen, Ismo, Jokelainen, Ilkka, Liewendahl, Kristian ..... 93 1.1.6.09 Exchange of Warmth during the Way of Negative and Positive Convention Connected with Blood Flowing in the Skin Surface Szubert, Jösef, Jankowski, Jerry, Kajdos, Zdzislaw, Matusiak, Marek ..... 95 1.1.6.10 A Recording Stethoscope in Study of Heart Sounds of Children Lukkarinen, Sakari, Noponen, Anna-Leena, Angerla, Anna, Sikiö, Kari, Sepponen, Raimo ..... 97 1.1.6.11 Cardiotocographic Image Processing for Extraction of FHR Baseline drawn by Clinical Expert Jezewski, Janusz, Wrobel, Janusz, Horoba, Ikrysrtof, Gacek, Adam, Graczyk, Slawomir ..... 99 1.1.6.12 Is Pulse Contour Method Useful for the Estimation of the Cardiac Output During Incremental Exercise Testing? Morita, Masaki, Sakurai, Katuhiko, Shirato, Kunio ..... 101 1.1.6.13 Thermal Clearance Skin Blood Flow Sensor with Local Skin Temperature Controller Raamat, Rein, Jagomägi, Kersti, Talts, Jaak, Luhamaa, Erkki ..... 103 1.1.7 Modelling Physiological Systems 1.1.7.01 Method for Continuous Determination of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Man Krticka, Antonin, Honzikova, Natasa, Fiser, Bohumil ..... 105 1.1.7.02 Selection and Identification of Lumped Models of the Arterial Vasculature Using Multiple Regression and Backward Elimination in the Time Domain Pochet, Thierry, Gerard, Paul, Lambermont, Bernard, Detry, Olivier, D'Orio, Vincent, Defraigne, Jean-Olivier, Fossion, Anny, Limet, Raymond ..... 107 1.1.7.03 A Method for the Analysis of Systemic Circulatory System Murahara, Yuji, Sakamoto, Katuyuki, Fujii, Mamiko, Kanai, Hiroshi ..... 109 1.1.8 Patient Monitoring 1.1.8.01 Modern Clinical Gas Monitoring Meriläinen, Pekka ..... 111 1.1.8.02 Current Progress in O2, Measurement by Luminescence Quenching Reininger, Franz, Kolle, Christian, Gruber, Wolfgang, Trettnak, Wolfgang ..... 113 1.1.8.03 Apnea Detection using a Tracheal Microphone and Back Propagation Neural Network Meskanen, Mervi ..... 115 1.1.8.04 Neural Networks in Anesthesiology Räsänen, Jukka ..... 117 1.1.8.05 Scenarios on Vital Signs and Derivation of a Domain lnformation Model Penzel, Thomas, Fuchs, Ken, Hassing, Kai, Hellman, Gunther, Macerata, Alberto, Nielsen, Kim, Värri, Alpo, Zywietz, Christoph ..... 119

1.2 Track II: Biomaterials and Sensors

1.2.1 Bioabsorbable Materials 1.2.1.01 Ultra-high Strength Self-reinforced Bioabsorbable Polymer Composites for Surgical Applications Törmälä, Pertti, Rokkanen, Pentti, Pohjonen, Timo ..... 121 1.2.1.02 Totally Absorbable Fixation Devices in Clinical Orthopaedics and Traumatology Rokkanen, Pentti, Böstman, Ole, Hirvensalo, Eero, Mäkelä E. Antero, Partio, Esa K., Vihtonen, Kimmo, Vainionpää, Seppo, Pätiälä, Hannu, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 123 1.2.1.03 Bioabsorbable Stents in Urology Tammela, Teuvo L.J., Talja, Martti, Petas, Anssi, Taari, Kimmo, Välimaa, Tero, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 125 1.2.1.04 In Vitro Hydrolysis of Self-Reinforced Polylactide Composites Pohjonen, Timo, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 127 1.2.1.05 Mechanical Properties of Bioabsorbable Stents Välimaa, Tero, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 129 1.2.1.06 The Use of Sintering Technique in Order to Produce Loop Shaped P(L/D)LA Product Miettinen, Erja, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 131 1.2.1.07 Ultrasonic Welding - A Novel Method to Manufacture Controlled Drug Release Devices Kellomäki, Minna, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 133 1.2.2 Biosensors 1.2.2.01 Designing Enzyme Electrodes for Continuous Use In Vivo Turner, Anthony P.F., Selkirk, Jane, Jaffari, Samrah, Saini, Selwayan ..... 135 1.2.2.02 Development of a Biosensor Based on Lipid Bilayer Stuctures and Membrane Proteins on Transducer Surfaces Puu, Gertrud, Gustafson, Inga, Tjärnhage, Torbjörn ..... 137 1.2.2.03 Antigen Binding to a Lipid-tagged Single-chain Antibody Incorporated into Phospholipid Monolayers Vikholm, Inger ..... 139 1.2.2.04 Responses of Mosquito Olfactory Biosensor to Human Sweat Odours and Odour Chemicals Huotari, Matti, Honkala, Lauri, Ruikka, Ville, Mela, Martti ..... 141 1.2.2.05 Microfabrication of Biosensors Koudelka-Hep, M., de Rooij, N.F., Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., Bobbioni-Harsch, E., Jeanrenaud, B. ..... 143 1.2.2.06 Phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Sensor Applications Lambeck, P.V., Heideman, R.G., Ikkink, T.J. ..... 145 1.2.2.07 Recent Development in Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements Sadowski, Janusz W. ..... 147 1.2,2.08 Response Analysis of Insect Olfactory Biosensor Huotari, Matti, Jaskari, Mareena, Honkala, Lauri, Ruikka, Ville, Mela, Martti ..... 149 1.2.3 Biomaterials 1.2.3.01 Polymer Composites in Biomedical Application Schauperl, Zdravko ..... 151 1.2.3.02 Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications: Experiments with Activated Carbon, Fullerene and Ferrous Oxide Kolari, P.J., Maaranen, P., Kauppinen, E., Joutsensaari, J., Jauhiainen, K., Pelkonen, K., Rannikko, S. ..... 153 1.2.3.03 Application of Fibre Compaction and Hydrostatic Extrusion for Improved Hydroxyapatite/Polyethylene Bone Substitute Ladizesky, N.H., Ward, I.M., Bonfield, W. ..... 155 1.2.3.04 Influence of Sterilisation by Gamma lrradiation and Thermal Annealing on the Creep of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Polyethylene Suwanprateeb, J., Tanner, K.E., Turner, S., Wang, M., Bonfield, W. ..... 157 1.2.3.05 Continuous Segment Transport in the Treatment of Shafts Defects: Experimental and Clinical lnvestigations Schlegel, Urs, Wiedemann, Manfred ..... 159 1.2,3.06 Response to the Implantation of Hydroxyapatite on the Bone and Cartilage Berzina, Liga, Cimdins, Rudolfs, Skagers, Andrejs, Salma, Ilze, Salms, Girts, Paegle, Diana ..... 161 1.2.3.07 Technological Possibilities of the Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Biomaterials Berzina, Liga, Cimdins, Rudolfs, Kasjanovs, Vladimirs, Knets, Ivars ..... 163 1.2.3.08 HAp Ceramics Modified with Si Cimdins, Rudolfs, Berzina, Liga, Leskinovics, Janis, Lagzdina, Silvija, Brante, Inta ..... 165 1.2.4 Tissue Properties 1.2.4.01 Optical Properies of Steadily and Sinusoidally Flowing Blood Kanai, Hiroshi, Fujii, Mamiko, Yoshida, Makoto, Masujima, Fumimasa, Sakamoto, Katsuyuki ..... 167 1.2.4.02 Physical Properties of Human Blood at Low Shear Rate Kanai, H., Fujii, M., Sakamoto, K., Niwa, M. ..... 169 1.2.4.03 Utilization of the Pyroelectric Effect in Studies of Thermal Denaturation of y -irradiated BAT Collagen Kusbisz, Leszek, Jaroszyk, Feliks, Marzec, Ewa ..... 171 1.2.4.04 Numerical Validation of Arthroscopic Cartilage Stiffness Measurement using a Finite Element Model Lyyra, Tiina, Lindgren, Reijo, Kaipio, Jari, Vauhkonen, Marko, Kiviranta, Ilkka, Jurvelin, Jukka S. ..... 173 1.2.4.05 Dielectric Properties of Air-Dried Bone in the @ - Dispersion Region Marzec, Ewa, Kusbisz, Leszek, Jaroszyk, Feliks ..... 175 1.2.4.06 Electron Structure of Bone Surface Layer Affected with Ultraviolet Radiation Dekhtyar, Yuri, Katashev, Alexey ..... 177 1.2.4.07 Relation between Blood Velocity Pattern and Vascular Endothelial Cell in the Renal Artery Yamamoto, Tokunori, Ogasawara, Yasuo, Tsujioka, Katsuhiko, Tokuda, Chikako, Kajiya, Fumihiko ..... 179 1.2.4.08 Multimedia Method of Human Skin Pigmentation Measurement Matusiak, Marek, Jankowski, Jerry, Cader, Andrzej ..... 181 1.2.4.09 Method of Measuring the UV-Absorption and the UV-Dispersion Coeffrcients in Human Skin Cader, Andrzej, Jankowski, Jerzy, Matusiak, Marek ..... 183 1.2.4.10 Spectrophotometrical Alterations in the Support Tissue of Large Bronchi in Humans Pilmane, Mara, Skidenko, Nagezda, Mironova, Nina ..... 185 1.2.4.11 Optical Anisotropy of Cell Nuclei Freivalds, Talivaldis, Groma, Valerie, Buikis, Indulis ..... 187 1.2.4.12 Investigations Concerning the Dielectric Properties of Breast Tumors. Methods and Results of ex-vivo-Measurements Minet, O., Heinitz, J., Müller, G. ..... 189 1.2.5 Electronic Implants 1.2.5.01 Microelectronic Developments for Cardiovascular Implants Schaldach. M. ..... 191 1.2.5.02 Reliability Aspects in Implantable Electronics Khassanov, Ildar, Schaldach, Max ..... 193 1.2.5.03 Validation of Closed Loop Rate Adaptive Pacing Based on Right Ventricular Mechanics Polley, Rüdiger, Malinowski, Klaus, Greco, Oswaldo T., Ebner, Erich, Rödiger, Wilfried, Luccese, Fernando A., Res, Jan C.J., van Woersem, Ruurd J., Beljaev, Oleg, Vaskelyte, Jolanta, de Vivie, Ernst R., Schaldach Max ..... 195 1.2.5.04 Comparison of Different Electrode Systems for Short and Long-term Monitoring of Monophasic Action Potentials Hubmann, M., Fröhlich, R., Wetzig, T., Bolz, A., Schaldach, M. ..... 197 1.2.5.05 Intracardiac Impedance Reflecting Contractility - Clinical and Modelling Studies Wetzig, Thomas, Urbaszek, Albrecht, Bolz, Armin, Moshage, Werner, Schultheiss, Birgit, Stoykov, Nicolai, Henning, Günter, Schaldach, Max ..... 199 1.2.5.06 Clinical Experience on ANS-Controlled Cardiomyoplasty Braile, Domingo, Bockeria, L., Shatalov, K, Revishvili, A.Sh., Brofinann, P.R., Schaldach, M. ..... 201 1.2.5-07 Hybrid Structure to lmprove the Biocompatibility for Cardiovascular Implants Schaldach, M., Amotr, M., Winkler, S., Bolz, A. ..... 203 1.2.5.08 Remote Intramyocardial Electrogram Analysis for Non-invasive Rejection Monitoring after Heart Transplantation Schreier, G., Huffen, H., Schaldach, M., Grasser, B., Iberer, F., Tscheliessnigg, K.H. ..... 205 1.2.6 Tissue Engineering and Medical Implants 1.2.6.01 Tissue Engineering: The Next Generation of Medical Implants Nerem, Robert M. ..... 207 1.2.6.02 In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Turbulent Stresses Downstream of the St. Jude Medical Aortic Valve Nygaard, Hans, Yoganathan, Ajit P. ..... 209 1.2.6.03 Retrograde Flow through Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valves Yogonathan, Ajit P., Fontaine, Arnold A., Ellis, Jeffrey T., Healy, Timothy M. ..... 211

1.3 Track III: Medical Imaging

1.3.1 X-ray Imaging 1.3.1.01 A Computer Program for the On Line Registration of the Exposure Data of X-ray Examinations Lampinen, Juha, Rannikko, Simo, Savolainen, Sauli ..... 213 1.3.1.02 Patient Doses from Various X-ray Units in Poland Jankowski, J., Staniszewska, M.A., Bednarek, A. ..... 215 1.3.1.03 The Use of a Radiological Phantom to Identify the Frequencies Related to Cancellous Structure in the Distal Radius Wigderowitz, Carlos A., Abel, Eric W., Rowley, David I., Arora, Nakul ..... 217 1.3.1.04 Fully Automatic Digital Image Overlaying on Retinal Fluorescein Angiograms Bunel, Philippe, Kone, Tiemoman, Mimoun, Gdrard, Bouaoune, Yasmina, Coscas, Gabriel ..... 219 1.3.1.05 Computerized Detection of Macular Non-Perfusion on Digitized Angiography in Retinal Vascular Diseases Meunier, Isabelle, Bunel, Philippe, Soubrane, Gisele, Gaudaire, Maurice, Coscas, Gabriel ..... 221 1.3.1.06 Computer Software Systems for Discriminating on CT the Patterns of Subarachnoid Spaces Enlargement in Children Cavouras, Dionisis, Prassopoulos, Panos, Golfinopoulos, Sotiris ..... 223 1.3.1.07 X-ray Detection and Optical Signal Properties of Gd2O2S:Tb, La2O2S:Tb, and ZnSCdS:Ag Phosphors for Use in Digital Mammography Cavouras, Dionisis, Kandarakis, Ioannis, Panayiotakis, George, Nomicos, Constantine ..... 225 1.3.1.08 An Instrument for Diagnostic X-Ray Generators Quality Control Marchesi, Bruno, Diessel, Evelyn, Nohama, Percy ..... 227 1.3.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1.3.2.01 Abdominal SPET-MRI Fusion in Hepatic and Splenic Uptake Studies of Thrombocytes and Colloids Pohjonen, Hanna, Savolainen, Sauli, Nikkinen, Päivi, Poutanen, Veli-Pekka, Korppi-Tommola, Tapani, Liewendahl, Kristian ..... 229 1.3.2.02 A Hierarchical Region-based Approach to the Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images of the Brain Bello, Fernando, Kitney, Richard I. ..... 231 1.3.2.03 IARD Method for Segmentation of Tissues in MR Scan of the Head Heinonen, Tomi, Eskola, Hannu, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 233 1.3.2.04 Quality Measurement of Compressed Medical Images: Block Effect Measures Kazubek, Marian, Przelaskowski, Artur, Jamrögiewicz, Tomasz ..... 235 1.3.2.05 Spin-lattice Relaxation Times in the on- and off-Resonance Rotating Frame: A Systematic Phantom Study Ramadan, Usama Abo, Tanttu, Jukka I., Aronen, Hannu J., Häkkinen, Anna-Maija ..... 237 1.3.2.06 Tissue Segmentation of Human Visible Man Data Using IARD Method Heinonen, T., Kauppinen, P., Malmivuo, J., Eskola, H. ..... 239 1.3.2.07 Volume Estimation of MS Plaques by Segmentation of MR Images Dastidar, Prasun, Ryymin, Pertti, Heinonen, Tomi, Elovaara, Irina ..... 241 1.3.3 Imaging 1.3.3.01 Application of Medical Image Data Characteristics for Constructing DCT-based Compression Algorithm Przelaskowski, Artur, Kazubek, Marian, Jamrögiewics, Tomasz ..... 243 1.3.3.02 Functional and Technical Items in a National Teleradiology System Palsson, Thorgeir, Björgvinsson, Jon Bragi, Eiriksson, Asmundur, Brekkan, Asmundur ..... 245 1.3.3.03 Attenuation Maps for SPECT Determined by Fan Beam Transmission Computed Tomography Yang, Jiwei, Kuikka, Jyrki ..... 247 1.3.3.04 Simple System for Quality Assessment of Radioaerosoles in Daily Clinical Practice Meigas, Kalju, Nazarenko, Sergei ..... 249 1.3.3.05 Estimation of Spatial Heterogeneity of the Capillary Bed Using Mathematical Triangulation and Distance Models Asker, Claes L., Salerud, E. Göran ..... 251 1.3.3.06 Segmentation of Colposcopic Color Images Guzman de Leon, Alejandro, Lerallut, Jean-Francois, Boulanger, Jean-Charles ..... 253 1.3.3.07 Comparative Evaluation of Signal and Noise Transfer Characteristics (MTF, DQE) of YrOrS:Tb and YrOrS:Eu Medical Image Receptors Kandarakis, Ioannis, Cavouras, Dionisis, Panayiotakis, George, Nomicos, Constantine ..... 255 1.3.3.08 Fractal Analysis of Blood Flow Distribution in Human Lungs Tenhunen-Eskelinen, Mirja, Kuikka, Jyrki T., Länsimies, Esko, Eriksson, Jarl-Thure ..... 257 1.3.3.09 The Scatter Correction for Cardiac Output in the Radionuclide First Pass Measurement Kauppinen, Tomi, Koskinen, Matti, Kööbi, Tiit ..... 259 1.3.3.10 A Bolus Tracking Algorithm, Based on Correlation Analysis, for Pixel by Pixel Functional Image Evaluation Bogorodzki, P., Rogowska, J., Piatkowski, A., Lo, E.H., Woll G.L. ..... 261 1.3.3.11 3D Monitoring of Small Polyp Colonies In Vivo Matiykas, Arvydas, Surna, Rimas ..... 263 1.3.3.12 Automatic Setting of Threshold in Synthesis of a Pan-focused Microscopic Picture Yajima, Masao, Yamashita, Norichika, Ohkoshi, Hiroyuki, Zhou, Xinxin, Ohki, Makoto, Hashiguchi, Sumihisa ..... 265 1.3.3.13 Multimedia Medical Archive Consultation using ISDN and Internet El Morr, Christo, Lerallut, Jean-Francois ..... 267 1.3.3.14 Towards the Workstation of the Neurologist / Neurosurgeon Frey, Harry, Pietilä, Timo, Heinonen, Tomi, Laasonen, Erkki ..... 269

1.4 Track IV: Bio-optical Apptications

1.4.1 Bio-Optics 1.4.1.01 Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging - Scanning and Duplex Modes Wårdell, Karin ..... 271 1.4,1.02 A new Single Fibre Laser Doppler Flowmeter based on a Digital Signal Processing Cai, H., Larsson, S-E., Öberg, P.Å. ..... 273 1.4.1.03 The Respiratory Synchronous Photoplethysmographic Signal. Its Dependence on Light Wavelength and Sample Volume Ugnell, H. ..... 275 1.4.1.04 Photoplethysmography for Simultaneous Recording of Heart and Respiratory Rates in Newborn Infants Olsson, E., Ugnell, H., Öberg, P.Å., Sedin, G. ..... 277 1.4.1.05 The Amplitude of the AC-coubled PPG Signal at Different Applied Pressures Laurent, Claes, Lindberg, Lars-Göran ..... 279 1.4.2 Bio-Optical Applications 1.4.2.01 Recent Developments in (Two-Photon) Fluorescence Microscopy Hell, S.W., Schrader, M., Bahlmann, K., Meinecke, F., Cremer, C., Hänninen, P.E., Soini, E. ..... 281 1.4.2.02 Low-Intensity Light Induces Vasomotion Morimoto, Yuji, Kikuchi, Makoto, Matsuo, Hirotaka, Arai, Tsunenori ..... 283 1.4.2.03 Side-Emitting Optical Fibres for Clinical Applications Spigulis, Janis, Lazdins, Juris, Pfafrods, Daumants, Stafeckis, Maris ..... 285 1.4.2.04 Optical Tomography of Biological Tissues by Phase-correlated Single Photon Counting Vogel, Uwe, Freyer, Richard, Dörschel, Klaus, Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd ..... 287 1.4.2.05 Potential Eye Hazard from Laser Radiation Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna ..... 289 1.4.2.06 Status and Future in Therapeutical Applications of Laser Kikuchi, Makoto ..... 291 1.4.2.07 Portable Equipment for Middle Ear Laser Vibrometry Vogel, Uwe, Hofmann, Gert, Zahnert, Thomas, Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd ..... 293 1.4.2.08 Cutaneous Microcirculation in Hypoxemic Patients Suffering from Severe Cardiopulmonary Disease. A Laser Doppler Study Csiki, Zoltan, Czirjak, Laszlo, Möller, Karl O., Nagy, Tibor, Andras, Csilla, Szegedi, Gyula ..... 295 1.4.2.09 A Generalized Diagnostic Algorithm Based on Fluorescence Data for the Atherosclerosis Yova, Dido, Politopoulos, Costas, Gonis, Helen, Papaodysseus, Costas ..... 297

1.5 Track V: Radiotherapy

1.5.1 Radiotherapy 1.5.1.01 The Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Station for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the FiR 1 in Otaniemi Auterinen, Iiro, Hiismäki, Pekka ..... 299 1.5.1.02 The Finnish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program - an Overview on Scientific Projects Savolainen, Sauli, Kallio, Merja, Auterinen, Iiro, Seppälä, Tiina, Vähätalo, Jyrki, Kulvik, Martti ..... 301 1.5.1.03 The Use of TL Detectors for Dose Estimations in Radioimmunotherapy Aschan, Carita, Toivonen, Matti, Lampinen, Juha, Kairemo, Kalevi, Savolainen, Sauli ..... 303 1.5.1.04 Collagen-water Interaction for Quantitative Estimation of Radiation-induced Subcutaneous Fibrosis by Dielectric Method Nuutinen, Jouni, Lahtinen, Tapani, Alanen, Esko, Tirkkonen, Arto, Nuortio, Lauri, Usenius,Taina ..... 305 1.5.1.05 Cellular Dosimetry in Radioimmunotherapy: Monte Carlo Simulations Kuronen, Antti, Savolainen, Sauli, Tagesson, Magnus, Kairemo, Kalevi, Strand, Sven-Erik ..... 307 1.5.1.06 Modeling Brain Tissue Substitutes for Phantoms in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Seppälä, Tiina, Vähätalo, Jyrki, Auterinen, Iiro, Savolainen, Sauli ..... 309 1.5.2 Hyperthermia 1.5.2.01 Hyperthermia Induced by High Energetic Ultrasound for Controlled Tissue Destruction Albu, Cristina, Almquist, Lars-Olof, Kirkhorn, Tomas, Bolmsjö, Magnus, Holmer, Nils-Gunnar ..... 311 1.5.2.02 The Radiotechnical Problems Connected with the Creation of Heating Fields in Deep Tissues within the Range of 10-50 Mhz Vashchuk, Taras,Talaluev,Alexander ..... 313 1.5.2.03 Theoretical and Experimental Research of Heating Operate Methods for Local Microwave Hyperthermia of Prostate Volkov, Boris ..... 315 1.5.2.04 Ultrasound Intracavitary Linear Array Applicator Theory for Local Tissue Hyperthermia and Thermotherapy Popsuev, Edward, Nedogovor, Valery, Sigal, Valery ..... 317

1.6 Track VI: Biomechanics

1.6.1 Biomechanics of the Bone Tissue 1.6.1.01 Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) - A Generalized Concept and Early Clinical Experience Nolte, L. P. ..... 319 1.6.1.02 Structural lnhomogeneity and Biomechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage Jurvelin, Jukka S., Arokoski, Jari P.A., Mueller, Daniel J., Helminen, Heikki J., Hunziker, Ernst B. ..... 321 1.6.1.03 Biomechanical Perforrnance of Posterior Spinal Stabilization Techniques in Severe Lumbar Anterior Column Injuries Nolte, L. P. ..... 323 1.6.1 .04 Applications of Finite Element Method to Investigation of the Geometrical Properties and the Mechanical Properties of Rat Long Bone Ma, Y., Pramila, A., Tuukkanen, J., Väänänen, K. ..... 325 1.6.1.05 An Invesitigation of Linear Viscoelasticity of Bone on the Basis of Rat Femur by using Three-Point Bending Testing Ma, Y., Sjölind, S.-G., Pramila, A., Tuukkanen, J., Väänänen, K. ..... 327 1.6.2 Biomechanics 1.6.2.01 Connection of Facial Osteoreceptive Fields Irritation with Change of Stomathognathic System Biomechanics Apine, Mara ..... 329 1.6.2.02 Biomedical Applications of a High-Precision Passive Marker Based Motion Analyser Jobbagy, Akos, Gyöngy, Laszlo, Furnee, Hans E. ..... 331 1.6.2.03 Redistribution Orthoses for Metatarsalgia Treatment: Design Based on High Resolution Pedobarography Lopez, Jose E., Perez, Jose M., Orrite, Carlos ..... 333 1.6.2.04 Predictional Features of the Two Dimensional Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Laurutis, Vincas, Daunys, Gintautas ..... 335 1.6.2.05 Age Influence on the Biomechanical Functions of the Human Eye Saulgozis, Juris, Pontaga, Inese ..... 337 1.6.2.06 The Repeatability of Plantar Pressures Measured with the Electro Mechanical Film Alanen, Jouko, Haapalainen, Jouni, Kvist, Martti, Orava, Sakari ..... 339 1.6.2.07 A Biomechanical Interpretation of Presence of "Muscle-Specific" Immunoreactivity in Human Glomeruli Groma, Valerie, Freivalds, Talivaldis ..... 341 1.6.2.08 Comparative Analysis of Biomechanical Models of Skeletal Muscle Vain, Arved, Kaljuvee, Aadi ..... 343 1.6.2.09 Shape of Proximal Femor and Pelvis in Male and Female Iglie, Ales, Kersnic, Bostjan, Kralj-Iglic, Veronika, Srakar, France, Antolic, Vane, Jaklic, Anton, Pernus, Franjo, Herman, Srecko ..... 345 1.6.2.10 Equipment for Testing the Biomechanical Strength of Bones Jämsä, Timo, Jalovaara, Pekka, Peng, ZhiQi, Väänänen, Kalervo ..... 347 1.6.2.11 Biomechanical Bases of an Author's Method of Atypical Prosthetics and Orthotics of Upper Extremities of Children Dukendjiev, Evgueny ..... 349

1.7 Track VII: Ultrasonics

1.7.1 Ultrasonics 1.7.1.01 FIELD: A Program for Simulating Ultrasound Systems Jensen, Jargen Arendt ..... 351 1.7.1.02 Digital Image Analysis of Ultrasound B-mode Images of Carotic Atherosclerotic Plaque: Correlation with Histological Examination Wilhjelm, J.E., Rosendal, K., Grönholdt, M.-L. M., Jespersen, S.K., Hansen, L.K., Sillesen, H. ..... 353 1.7.1.03 Influence of Formalin Fixation Prior to In Vitro Ultrasound Examination of Porcine Arteries Wilhjelm, J.E., Vogt, K., Jespersen, S.K., Nordmann, N., Sillesen, H. ..... 355 1.7.1.04 Combined Aortic Valve Disease: In Vitro Doppler and Catheter Measurements Einav, Shmuel, Zaretsky, Uri ..... 357 1.7.1.05 Diagnostics of Tibial Bone Fracture and Non-Union by Ultrasound Saulgozis, Juris, Pontaga, Inese ..... 359 1.7.1.06 Use of Contra-Sounding Principle for Detection of Ultrasound Velocity and Attenuation in Human Compact Bone Saulgozis, Juris, Pontaga, Inese, Balodis, Augusts ..... 361 1.7.1.07 Ultrasonic Echoscopy of Eye: Causal Model Lukosevicius, Arunas, Jurkonis, Rytis ..... 363 1.7.1.08 Development of Ultrasonic Transducers of Medical Diagnostics Lukosevicius, Arunas, Vaiciunas, Audrius, Burnovas, Stasys ..... 365 1.7.1.09 Optical Densitometry Measurements of Selected Areas of Ultrasonic Images Chmielorz, Wojciech, Gacek, Adam, Horoba, Krzysrtof, Wrobel, Janusz, Jezewski, Janusz ..... 367 1.7.1.10 A New Non-Invasive Monitoring Technology for Neurosurgical ICU Patients and Heatthy Persons Ragauskas, A., Daubaris, G., Pamakstis, V., Chomskis, R. ..... 369

1.8 Track VIII: Medical Informatics

1.8.1 Nonlinear Dvnamics in Medicine 1.8.1.01 Characterization of Cardiovascular Diseases by Measures of Non-Linear Dynamics Voss, A., Wessel, N., Kleiner, H.J., Osterziel, K., Dietz, R. ..... 371 1.8.1.02 Nonlinear Dynamics and Cardiac Arrhythmias Kongas, O., von Hertzen, R. ..... 373 1.8.1.03 Fractality of Blood-Vessel System and Lung Kalda, Jaan. ..... 375 1.8.1.04 Nonlinear Modelling of Polyrhythmic Hand Movements Scheffczyk, Christian, Engbert, Ralf, Krampe, Ralf, Kurths, Jürgen, Rosenblum, Michael, Zaikin, Aleksei ..... 377 1.8.1.05 Nonlinear Analysis of Heart Dynamics Zebrowski, Jan J., Buchner, Teodor, Baranowski, Rafal, Poplawska, Wanda ..... 379 1.8.2 Heart Rate Variabitity 1.8.2.01 Comparison of Short- and Long-Term Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Measurements from Non-Linear Dynamics Wessel, Niels, Voss, Andreas, Kurths, Juergen, Witt, Annette, Kleiner, Hans-Juergen, Dietz, Rainer ..... 381 1.8.2.02 Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Severe Autonomic Dysfunction Wiklund, Urban ..... 383 1.8.2.03 Activity of the Autonomic Nervous System and Diastolic Disfunction of the Left Ventricle in Hypertensive Patients Klemenc, Matjaz, Zimic, Nikolaj, Kranjec, Igor, Jezerssek, Pavle ..... 385 1.8.2.04 Real Time Wavelet Transform Implementation for ECG Waves Forms Detection and Heart Rate Analysis Bahoura, Mohamed, Hassani, Miloud, Hubin, Michel ..... 387 1.8.2.05 Statistical Properties of Pattem Entropy of HRV Dynamics in 24-hour Holter ECG Buchner, T., Zebrowski, J.J., Poplawska, W., Baranowski, R. ..... 389 1.8.2.06 A Computer Program to Analyze the Dynamics of QT Interval from Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Tikkanen, P.E., Sellin, L.C., Kinnunen, H.O., Linnaluoto, M.K., Huikuri, H.V. ..... 391 1.8.3 Expert Systems and Medical Informatics 1.8.3.01 A WWW Site for Substaining Oncological Studies Sacile, Roberto, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Lombardo, Claudio, Wyley, Thomas ..... 393 1.8.3.02 Sleep Dynamics and Sleep Disorders: a Syntactic Approach to Hypnogram Classification Fred, Ana L.N., Paiva, T. ..... 395 1.8.3.03 Applying CommonKADS to Oncology Sacile, Roberto, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Dieng, Rose ..... 397 1.8.3.04 Using Artificial Neural Nets to Identify Ductus Arteriosus Status in Preterm Infants Ruggiero, Carmelina, Sacile, Roberto ..... 399 1.8.3.05 An Expert System for Early Recognition of Ischemic Heart Disease Gargasas, Liudas, Ruseckas, Rimtautas, Torrau, Irena, Miskinis, Vytenis, Jurkoniene, Ruta, Cizas, Marijus, Kirmonas, Anatolijus ..... 401 1.8.3.06 An Approach to Validate Intelligent Monitoring Systems in Critical Care Moret-Bonillo, Vicente, Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo, Mosqueira-Rey, Eduardo ..... 403 1.8.3.07 Formal Validation of the Intelligent Monitoring System PATRICIA Moret-Bonillo, Vicente, Mosqueira-Rey, Eduardo ..... 405 1.8.3.08 Object Oriented Design of a New, Standard File Exchange Format for Vital Signs Värri, Alpo, Hellmann, Günter, Penzel, Thomas, Nielsen, Kim D., Macerata, Alberto, Gottlieb, Lars, Hassing, Kai, Zywietz, Christoph ..... 407 1.8.3.09 An Object-Oriented Epidemiological Data Modelling System Pourabbas, E., Rafanelli, M. ..... 409 1.8.3.10 Validating the EPIC Prototype in Savona: The Local Data Base Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Sacile, Roberto, Musizzano, Elvio, Lavazelli, Pierluigi, Preglasco, Paola, Caorsi, Giovanna ..... 411 1.8.3.11 A Paradox implementation of a multimodal database for motor disable patient management Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Morasso, Pietro, Baratto, Luigi ..... 413 1.8.3.12 Computerized ECG Recording in Functional Tests Bauer, J.U., Schwela, H., Vainoras, A., Ruseckas, R., Korsakas, S. ..... 415

1.9 Track IX: Biomedical Signal and Image Processing

1.9.1 Wavelets and Fuzzy Logic Methods 1.9.1.01 Wavelets and Biomedical Signal Processing Akay, Metin ..... 417 1.9.1.02 Wavelet Processing Techniques for Enhancement and Computer Aided Diagnosis of Digital Mammography Laine, Andrew F. ..... 419 1.9.1.03 On Time-Frequency and Wavelet Methods Flandrin, Patrick ..... 421 1.9.2 Biomedical Signal and Image Processing 1.9.2.01 Detection of EEG Changes via Adaptive ltakura Distance Prahlad, Meera, Gupta, Uday, Kong, Xuan ..... 423 1.9.2.02 Analysis of the Relationship between Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure in Humans using Linear and Nonlinear Modelization Celka, P., Vetter, R., Scherrer, U., Pruvot, E., Karrakchou, M. ..... 425 1.9.2.03 Probabilistic Neural Networks for 3D Protein Structure Prediction: Why Are they Better than Fuzzy Neural Networks and Statistical Techniques Mehta, Bhavin V., Matta Vikram, Wang, Weirong ..... 427 1.9.2.04 Matching Pursuit - a Method of Evaluation and Parametrisation of Non-Stationary Signals and Transients Durka, P.J., Blinowska, K.J., Zygierewicz, J. ..... 429 1.9.2.05 Reassigned Time/Frequency Representations for Frequency Modulation Tracking Devedeux, Dominique, Duchene, Jacques, Marque, Catherine ..... 431