Proceedings of the 10th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering
Table of Contents

1.0 Opening Ceremony and State-of-the-Art Lectures

1.0.01 Opening Address Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 1 Scientific Opening Lecture 1.0.02 The Self-Organrzing Map, a Possible Model of Brain Maps Kohonen, Teuvo ..... 5 State-of-the-Art Lectures 1.0.03 Artificial Heart History and Present Status Akutsu, Tetsuzo ..... 9 1.0.04 Biosensors Turner, Anthony P.F. ..... 11 1.0.05 Developments in Real Time Volumetric Scanning von Ramm, Olaf T. ..... 13 1.0.06 Nonlinear Systems in Medicine Engelbrecht, Juri ..... 15 1.0.07 Fibre-Optic Sensors and their Application in Medical Diagnosis Öberg, P. Åke ..... 17

1.1 Track I: Bioengineering

1.1.1 Technology for Disabled and Elderly Alarm Systems and Video Communication. Old Problems Solved by Modern Technology Lindström, Jan-lngvar ..... 21 Smarter Homes for Independent Living Ekberg, Jan ..... 23 Universal Access to Terminals and Computer Systems Emiliani, Pier Luigi ..... 25 Support Infrastructure around and in the Home to Increase Independence for People with Disabilities Soede, M., Willems, Ch. ..... 27 Videotelephone Services for Elderly and Mobility Impaired People Perälä, Jukka, Lounela-Stenberg, Lea, Törönen, Juha, Lehikoinen, Panu ..... 29 1.1.2 Home Health Care Attempts of Fully Automated Home Health Monitoring Systems Togawa, Tatsuo, Tamura, Toshiyo, Kimura, Yuichi, Ogawa, Mitsuro ..... 31 ISDN Technology for Cancer Patient Assistance at Home Sacile, Roberto, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Repetto, Lazzaro, Venturino, Antonella ..... 33 Multipurpose Electronic Door Bell Warning System Using Multiple Sensing Devices for Deaf and Hearing Handicapped Debnath, Niranjan, Mishra, B.N., Aljunid, Syed Abdul Kader ..... 35 Baby Alarm System for Deaf Parents having Multiple Sensory Stimulation Debnath, Niranjan, Leman, Zainab, Aljunid, Syed Abdul Kader ..... 37 Dynamic Characteristics of a Simple Eye-tracking Pointer Hashiguchi, Sumihisa, Murakami, Hiroshi, Wang, Hua-gang, Zhou, Xinxin, Ohki, Makoto, Miyahara, Shinji ..... 39 Recording Methods for Home Monitoring Taskinen, Jari, Karlsson, Matti, Salo, Juha, Eskola, Hannu ..... 41 1.1.3 Engineering in Health Care Experiences in Transformation of the Hungarian Health Care System Nagy, Csaba, Richter, Nandor ..... 43 Position and Importance of the Clinical Engineering Education in Hungary Forgacs, Lajos, Darday, Vilmos ..... 45 Experiences from Refinements of Medical and Technical Research Results at Umeå University into Commercial Products for the Health Care Market Lindahl. Olof ..... 47 Quantitative Assessment of Solute Transport in Peritoneal Dialysis Waniewski, Jacek, Heimbürger, Olof, Werynski, Andrzej, Lindholm, Bengt ..... 49 Hand Dynamometers Set and their Application in the Clinic Practice Smirnov, Georgy, Veshutkin, Vladimir, Radau, Una, Maksimova, Lubov, Kostjunin, Andrey, Donchenko, Ekaterina, Petrov, Sergey, Mitrofanov, Nikolay, Chernov, Vladimir, Karpovskiy, Vladimir ..... 51 Quality of Hemoglobin Analyses in Kaunas City Tarutiene, Birute, Kebeikis, Sarunas, Svensson, Kent, Svensson, Owe ..... 53 1.1.4 Clinical Engineering Clinical Engineering in the New Communication Age Pallikarakis, Nicolas ..... 55 New Challenges for the Management of a Clinical Engineering Department Karp, Pekka ..... 57 Implementation and Evaluation of Hospital Quality Systems for Clinical Engineering Bojsen, J., Georgsson, G., Grimnes, S., Karp, P., Lofstedt, L., Thordn, U., Vauramo, E ..... 59 Clinical Engineers as Innovators and Product Developers Öberg, P. Åke ..... 61 Clinical Engineering and Internet Rainer, Werner, Cappa, Paolo ..... 63 1.1.5 Physiological Measurements Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Concentration in Isolated Organs by Nitric Oxide Microsensor Mochizuki, Seiichi, Goto, Masami, Fukuhiro, Yoshiaki, Tsujioka, Katsuhiko, Kajiya, Fumihiko ..... 65 EMF Force Sensor - a Flexible and Sensitive Electret Film for Physiological Applications Lekkala, Jukka, Poramo, Risto, Nyholm, Krister, Kaikkonen, Timo ..... 67 Dithering with Noise and Interference for Accurate Data Acquisition Aumala, Olli ..... 69 A Software Tool to Extend the Quantification Power of a Virological Analysis Giacomini, Mauro, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Lillo, Flavia, McDermott, Jennifer, Varnier, Oliviero E. ..... 71 The Data Acquisition System for Functional Clinical Researches Allen, George, Zagursky, Valery ..... 73 Non-lnvasive Topographical Investigation of Functional Parameters in the Human Skin Kessler, Manfred, Krug, Alfons, Höper, Jens ..... 75 General-Purpose Signal Analysis and Processing Tool for Physiological Signals Sorsa, Heli, Turjanmaa, Väinö, Jurvelin, Jukka, Korhonen, Ilkka ..... 77 1.1.6 Physiological Measurements of the Circulatory System Central Hemodynamics and ECG Ambulatory Monitoring Device with Signals Recording on PCMCIA Flash Memory Cards Cybulski, G., Ksiazkiewicz, A., Lukasik, W., Niewiadomski, W., Palko, T. ..... 79 Local Haemodynamic Response of Hip and Calcaneus in Coxarthrosis Mertens, Andris, Vitola, Maruta, Curiskis, Andris ..... 81 An Integrated Analysis System for Electrophysiological Testing of the Heart Nousiainen, Juha, Mäkynen, Pekka, Anttonen, Olli, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 83 Windows based System for Electrophysiology Studies of the Heart Vänttinen, Henri, Nousiainen, Juha, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 85 Revisiting the Evaluation of the Performance of Fluid-Filled Catheters Gerard, Paul, Pochet, Thierry, Lambermont, Bernard, Detry, Olivier, D'Orio, Vincent, Defraigne, Jean-Olivier, Fossion, Anny, Limet, Raymond ..... 87 Comparison of Time-Frequency Distributions in the Heart Sounds Analysis Ritola, Jarmo, Lukkarinen, Sakari ..... 89 Frequency Response Measurements on Commercially Available Stethoscopes Korhonen, Pekka, Lukkarinen, Sakari, Sepponen, Raimo, Backman, Juha, Ruotoistenmäki, Heikki, Rajala, Kimmo ..... 91 Blood Platelet Kinetics in Normal Subjects and in Patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Lintunen, Pasi, Savolainen, Sauli, Koponen, Ismo, Jokelainen, Ilkka, Liewendahl, Kristian ..... 93 Exchange of Warmth during the Way of Negative and Positive Convention Connected with Blood Flowing in the Skin Surface Szubert, Jösef, Jankowski, Jerry, Kajdos, Zdzislaw, Matusiak, Marek ..... 95 A Recording Stethoscope in Study of Heart Sounds of Children Lukkarinen, Sakari, Noponen, Anna-Leena, Angerla, Anna, Sikiö, Kari, Sepponen, Raimo ..... 97 Cardiotocographic Image Processing for Extraction of FHR Baseline drawn by Clinical Expert Jezewski, Janusz, Wrobel, Janusz, Horoba, Ikrysrtof, Gacek, Adam, Graczyk, Slawomir ..... 99 Is Pulse Contour Method Useful for the Estimation of the Cardiac Output During Incremental Exercise Testing? Morita, Masaki, Sakurai, Katuhiko, Shirato, Kunio ..... 101 Thermal Clearance Skin Blood Flow Sensor with Local Skin Temperature Controller Raamat, Rein, Jagomägi, Kersti, Talts, Jaak, Luhamaa, Erkki ..... 103 1.1.7 Modelling Physiological Systems Method for Continuous Determination of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Man Krticka, Antonin, Honzikova, Natasa, Fiser, Bohumil ..... 105 Selection and Identification of Lumped Models of the Arterial Vasculature Using Multiple Regression and Backward Elimination in the Time Domain Pochet, Thierry, Gerard, Paul, Lambermont, Bernard, Detry, Olivier, D'Orio, Vincent, Defraigne, Jean-Olivier, Fossion, Anny, Limet, Raymond ..... 107 A Method for the Analysis of Systemic Circulatory System Murahara, Yuji, Sakamoto, Katuyuki, Fujii, Mamiko, Kanai, Hiroshi ..... 109 1.1.8 Patient Monitoring Modern Clinical Gas Monitoring Meriläinen, Pekka ..... 111 Current Progress in O2, Measurement by Luminescence Quenching Reininger, Franz, Kolle, Christian, Gruber, Wolfgang, Trettnak, Wolfgang ..... 113 Apnea Detection using a Tracheal Microphone and Back Propagation Neural Network Meskanen, Mervi ..... 115 Neural Networks in Anesthesiology Räsänen, Jukka ..... 117 Scenarios on Vital Signs and Derivation of a Domain lnformation Model Penzel, Thomas, Fuchs, Ken, Hassing, Kai, Hellman, Gunther, Macerata, Alberto, Nielsen, Kim, Värri, Alpo, Zywietz, Christoph ..... 119

1.2 Track II: Biomaterials and Sensors

1.2.1 Bioabsorbable Materials Ultra-high Strength Self-reinforced Bioabsorbable Polymer Composites for Surgical Applications Törmälä, Pertti, Rokkanen, Pentti, Pohjonen, Timo ..... 121 Totally Absorbable Fixation Devices in Clinical Orthopaedics and Traumatology Rokkanen, Pentti, Böstman, Ole, Hirvensalo, Eero, Mäkelä E. Antero, Partio, Esa K., Vihtonen, Kimmo, Vainionpää, Seppo, Pätiälä, Hannu, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 123 Bioabsorbable Stents in Urology Tammela, Teuvo L.J., Talja, Martti, Petas, Anssi, Taari, Kimmo, Välimaa, Tero, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 125 In Vitro Hydrolysis of Self-Reinforced Polylactide Composites Pohjonen, Timo, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 127 Mechanical Properties of Bioabsorbable Stents Välimaa, Tero, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 129 The Use of Sintering Technique in Order to Produce Loop Shaped P(L/D)LA Product Miettinen, Erja, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 131 Ultrasonic Welding - A Novel Method to Manufacture Controlled Drug Release Devices Kellomäki, Minna, Törmälä, Pertti ..... 133 1.2.2 Biosensors Designing Enzyme Electrodes for Continuous Use In Vivo Turner, Anthony P.F., Selkirk, Jane, Jaffari, Samrah, Saini, Selwayan ..... 135 Development of a Biosensor Based on Lipid Bilayer Stuctures and Membrane Proteins on Transducer Surfaces Puu, Gertrud, Gustafson, Inga, Tjärnhage, Torbjörn ..... 137 Antigen Binding to a Lipid-tagged Single-chain Antibody Incorporated into Phospholipid Monolayers Vikholm, Inger ..... 139 Responses of Mosquito Olfactory Biosensor to Human Sweat Odours and Odour Chemicals Huotari, Matti, Honkala, Lauri, Ruikka, Ville, Mela, Martti ..... 141 Microfabrication of Biosensors Koudelka-Hep, M., de Rooij, N.F., Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F., Bobbioni-Harsch, E., Jeanrenaud, B. ..... 143 Phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Sensor Applications Lambeck, P.V., Heideman, R.G., Ikkink, T.J. ..... 145 Recent Development in Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements Sadowski, Janusz W. ..... 147 1.2,2.08 Response Analysis of Insect Olfactory Biosensor Huotari, Matti, Jaskari, Mareena, Honkala, Lauri, Ruikka, Ville, Mela, Martti ..... 149 1.2.3 Biomaterials Polymer Composites in Biomedical Application Schauperl, Zdravko ..... 151 Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications: Experiments with Activated Carbon, Fullerene and Ferrous Oxide Kolari, P.J., Maaranen, P., Kauppinen, E., Joutsensaari, J., Jauhiainen, K., Pelkonen, K., Rannikko, S. ..... 153 Application of Fibre Compaction and Hydrostatic Extrusion for Improved Hydroxyapatite/Polyethylene Bone Substitute Ladizesky, N.H., Ward, I.M., Bonfield, W. ..... 155 Influence of Sterilisation by Gamma lrradiation and Thermal Annealing on the Creep of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Polyethylene Suwanprateeb, J., Tanner, K.E., Turner, S., Wang, M., Bonfield, W. ..... 157 Continuous Segment Transport in the Treatment of Shafts Defects: Experimental and Clinical lnvestigations Schlegel, Urs, Wiedemann, Manfred ..... 159 1.2,3.06 Response to the Implantation of Hydroxyapatite on the Bone and Cartilage Berzina, Liga, Cimdins, Rudolfs, Skagers, Andrejs, Salma, Ilze, Salms, Girts, Paegle, Diana ..... 161 Technological Possibilities of the Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Biomaterials Berzina, Liga, Cimdins, Rudolfs, Kasjanovs, Vladimirs, Knets, Ivars ..... 163 HAp Ceramics Modified with Si Cimdins, Rudolfs, Berzina, Liga, Leskinovics, Janis, Lagzdina, Silvija, Brante, Inta ..... 165 1.2.4 Tissue Properties Optical Properies of Steadily and Sinusoidally Flowing Blood Kanai, Hiroshi, Fujii, Mamiko, Yoshida, Makoto, Masujima, Fumimasa, Sakamoto, Katsuyuki ..... 167 Physical Properties of Human Blood at Low Shear Rate Kanai, H., Fujii, M., Sakamoto, K., Niwa, M. ..... 169 Utilization of the Pyroelectric Effect in Studies of Thermal Denaturation of y -irradiated BAT Collagen Kusbisz, Leszek, Jaroszyk, Feliks, Marzec, Ewa ..... 171 Numerical Validation of Arthroscopic Cartilage Stiffness Measurement using a Finite Element Model Lyyra, Tiina, Lindgren, Reijo, Kaipio, Jari, Vauhkonen, Marko, Kiviranta, Ilkka, Jurvelin, Jukka S. ..... 173 Dielectric Properties of Air-Dried Bone in the @ - Dispersion Region Marzec, Ewa, Kusbisz, Leszek, Jaroszyk, Feliks ..... 175 Electron Structure of Bone Surface Layer Affected with Ultraviolet Radiation Dekhtyar, Yuri, Katashev, Alexey ..... 177 Relation between Blood Velocity Pattern and Vascular Endothelial Cell in the Renal Artery Yamamoto, Tokunori, Ogasawara, Yasuo, Tsujioka, Katsuhiko, Tokuda, Chikako, Kajiya, Fumihiko ..... 179 Multimedia Method of Human Skin Pigmentation Measurement Matusiak, Marek, Jankowski, Jerry, Cader, Andrzej ..... 181 Method of Measuring the UV-Absorption and the UV-Dispersion Coeffrcients in Human Skin Cader, Andrzej, Jankowski, Jerzy, Matusiak, Marek ..... 183 Spectrophotometrical Alterations in the Support Tissue of Large Bronchi in Humans Pilmane, Mara, Skidenko, Nagezda, Mironova, Nina ..... 185 Optical Anisotropy of Cell Nuclei Freivalds, Talivaldis, Groma, Valerie, Buikis, Indulis ..... 187 Investigations Concerning the Dielectric Properties of Breast Tumors. Methods and Results of ex-vivo-Measurements Minet, O., Heinitz, J., Müller, G. ..... 189 1.2.5 Electronic Implants Microelectronic Developments for Cardiovascular Implants Schaldach. M. ..... 191 Reliability Aspects in Implantable Electronics Khassanov, Ildar, Schaldach, Max ..... 193 Validation of Closed Loop Rate Adaptive Pacing Based on Right Ventricular Mechanics Polley, Rüdiger, Malinowski, Klaus, Greco, Oswaldo T., Ebner, Erich, Rödiger, Wilfried, Luccese, Fernando A., Res, Jan C.J., van Woersem, Ruurd J., Beljaev, Oleg, Vaskelyte, Jolanta, de Vivie, Ernst R., Schaldach Max ..... 195 Comparison of Different Electrode Systems for Short and Long-term Monitoring of Monophasic Action Potentials Hubmann, M., Fröhlich, R., Wetzig, T., Bolz, A., Schaldach, M. ..... 197 Intracardiac Impedance Reflecting Contractility - Clinical and Modelling Studies Wetzig, Thomas, Urbaszek, Albrecht, Bolz, Armin, Moshage, Werner, Schultheiss, Birgit, Stoykov, Nicolai, Henning, Günter, Schaldach, Max ..... 199 Clinical Experience on ANS-Controlled Cardiomyoplasty Braile, Domingo, Bockeria, L., Shatalov, K, Revishvili, A.Sh., Brofinann, P.R., Schaldach, M. ..... 201 1.2.5-07 Hybrid Structure to lmprove the Biocompatibility for Cardiovascular Implants Schaldach, M., Amotr, M., Winkler, S., Bolz, A. ..... 203 Remote Intramyocardial Electrogram Analysis for Non-invasive Rejection Monitoring after Heart Transplantation Schreier, G., Huffen, H., Schaldach, M., Grasser, B., Iberer, F., Tscheliessnigg, K.H. ..... 205 1.2.6 Tissue Engineering and Medical Implants Tissue Engineering: The Next Generation of Medical Implants Nerem, Robert M. ..... 207 In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Turbulent Stresses Downstream of the St. Jude Medical Aortic Valve Nygaard, Hans, Yoganathan, Ajit P. ..... 209 Retrograde Flow through Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valves Yogonathan, Ajit P., Fontaine, Arnold A., Ellis, Jeffrey T., Healy, Timothy M. ..... 211

1.3 Track III: Medical Imaging

1.3.1 X-ray Imaging A Computer Program for the On Line Registration of the Exposure Data of X-ray Examinations Lampinen, Juha, Rannikko, Simo, Savolainen, Sauli ..... 213 Patient Doses from Various X-ray Units in Poland Jankowski, J., Staniszewska, M.A., Bednarek, A. ..... 215 The Use of a Radiological Phantom to Identify the Frequencies Related to Cancellous Structure in the Distal Radius Wigderowitz, Carlos A., Abel, Eric W., Rowley, David I., Arora, Nakul ..... 217 Fully Automatic Digital Image Overlaying on Retinal Fluorescein Angiograms Bunel, Philippe, Kone, Tiemoman, Mimoun, Gdrard, Bouaoune, Yasmina, Coscas, Gabriel ..... 219 Computerized Detection of Macular Non-Perfusion on Digitized Angiography in Retinal Vascular Diseases Meunier, Isabelle, Bunel, Philippe, Soubrane, Gisele, Gaudaire, Maurice, Coscas, Gabriel ..... 221 Computer Software Systems for Discriminating on CT the Patterns of Subarachnoid Spaces Enlargement in Children Cavouras, Dionisis, Prassopoulos, Panos, Golfinopoulos, Sotiris ..... 223 X-ray Detection and Optical Signal Properties of Gd2O2S:Tb, La2O2S:Tb, and ZnSCdS:Ag Phosphors for Use in Digital Mammography Cavouras, Dionisis, Kandarakis, Ioannis, Panayiotakis, George, Nomicos, Constantine ..... 225 An Instrument for Diagnostic X-Ray Generators Quality Control Marchesi, Bruno, Diessel, Evelyn, Nohama, Percy ..... 227 1.3.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abdominal SPET-MRI Fusion in Hepatic and Splenic Uptake Studies of Thrombocytes and Colloids Pohjonen, Hanna, Savolainen, Sauli, Nikkinen, Päivi, Poutanen, Veli-Pekka, Korppi-Tommola, Tapani, Liewendahl, Kristian ..... 229 A Hierarchical Region-based Approach to the Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images of the Brain Bello, Fernando, Kitney, Richard I. ..... 231 IARD Method for Segmentation of Tissues in MR Scan of the Head Heinonen, Tomi, Eskola, Hannu, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 233 Quality Measurement of Compressed Medical Images: Block Effect Measures Kazubek, Marian, Przelaskowski, Artur, Jamrögiewicz, Tomasz ..... 235 Spin-lattice Relaxation Times in the on- and off-Resonance Rotating Frame: A Systematic Phantom Study Ramadan, Usama Abo, Tanttu, Jukka I., Aronen, Hannu J., Häkkinen, Anna-Maija ..... 237 Tissue Segmentation of Human Visible Man Data Using IARD Method Heinonen, T., Kauppinen, P., Malmivuo, J., Eskola, H. ..... 239 Volume Estimation of MS Plaques by Segmentation of MR Images Dastidar, Prasun, Ryymin, Pertti, Heinonen, Tomi, Elovaara, Irina ..... 241 1.3.3 Imaging Application of Medical Image Data Characteristics for Constructing DCT-based Compression Algorithm Przelaskowski, Artur, Kazubek, Marian, Jamrögiewics, Tomasz ..... 243 Functional and Technical Items in a National Teleradiology System Palsson, Thorgeir, Björgvinsson, Jon Bragi, Eiriksson, Asmundur, Brekkan, Asmundur ..... 245 Attenuation Maps for SPECT Determined by Fan Beam Transmission Computed Tomography Yang, Jiwei, Kuikka, Jyrki ..... 247 Simple System for Quality Assessment of Radioaerosoles in Daily Clinical Practice Meigas, Kalju, Nazarenko, Sergei ..... 249 Estimation of Spatial Heterogeneity of the Capillary Bed Using Mathematical Triangulation and Distance Models Asker, Claes L., Salerud, E. Göran ..... 251 Segmentation of Colposcopic Color Images Guzman de Leon, Alejandro, Lerallut, Jean-Francois, Boulanger, Jean-Charles ..... 253 Comparative Evaluation of Signal and Noise Transfer Characteristics (MTF, DQE) of YrOrS:Tb and YrOrS:Eu Medical Image Receptors Kandarakis, Ioannis, Cavouras, Dionisis, Panayiotakis, George, Nomicos, Constantine ..... 255 Fractal Analysis of Blood Flow Distribution in Human Lungs Tenhunen-Eskelinen, Mirja, Kuikka, Jyrki T., Länsimies, Esko, Eriksson, Jarl-Thure ..... 257 The Scatter Correction for Cardiac Output in the Radionuclide First Pass Measurement Kauppinen, Tomi, Koskinen, Matti, Kööbi, Tiit ..... 259 A Bolus Tracking Algorithm, Based on Correlation Analysis, for Pixel by Pixel Functional Image Evaluation Bogorodzki, P., Rogowska, J., Piatkowski, A., Lo, E.H., Woll G.L. ..... 261 3D Monitoring of Small Polyp Colonies In Vivo Matiykas, Arvydas, Surna, Rimas ..... 263 Automatic Setting of Threshold in Synthesis of a Pan-focused Microscopic Picture Yajima, Masao, Yamashita, Norichika, Ohkoshi, Hiroyuki, Zhou, Xinxin, Ohki, Makoto, Hashiguchi, Sumihisa ..... 265 Multimedia Medical Archive Consultation using ISDN and Internet El Morr, Christo, Lerallut, Jean-Francois ..... 267 Towards the Workstation of the Neurologist / Neurosurgeon Frey, Harry, Pietilä, Timo, Heinonen, Tomi, Laasonen, Erkki ..... 269

1.4 Track IV: Bio-optical Apptications

1.4.1 Bio-Optics Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging - Scanning and Duplex Modes Wårdell, Karin ..... 271 1.4,1.02 A new Single Fibre Laser Doppler Flowmeter based on a Digital Signal Processing Cai, H., Larsson, S-E., Öberg, P.Å. ..... 273 The Respiratory Synchronous Photoplethysmographic Signal. Its Dependence on Light Wavelength and Sample Volume Ugnell, H. ..... 275 Photoplethysmography for Simultaneous Recording of Heart and Respiratory Rates in Newborn Infants Olsson, E., Ugnell, H., Öberg, P.Å., Sedin, G. ..... 277 The Amplitude of the AC-coubled PPG Signal at Different Applied Pressures Laurent, Claes, Lindberg, Lars-Göran ..... 279 1.4.2 Bio-Optical Applications Recent Developments in (Two-Photon) Fluorescence Microscopy Hell, S.W., Schrader, M., Bahlmann, K., Meinecke, F., Cremer, C., Hänninen, P.E., Soini, E. ..... 281 Low-Intensity Light Induces Vasomotion Morimoto, Yuji, Kikuchi, Makoto, Matsuo, Hirotaka, Arai, Tsunenori ..... 283 Side-Emitting Optical Fibres for Clinical Applications Spigulis, Janis, Lazdins, Juris, Pfafrods, Daumants, Stafeckis, Maris ..... 285 Optical Tomography of Biological Tissues by Phase-correlated Single Photon Counting Vogel, Uwe, Freyer, Richard, Dörschel, Klaus, Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd ..... 287 Potential Eye Hazard from Laser Radiation Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna ..... 289 Status and Future in Therapeutical Applications of Laser Kikuchi, Makoto ..... 291 Portable Equipment for Middle Ear Laser Vibrometry Vogel, Uwe, Hofmann, Gert, Zahnert, Thomas, Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd ..... 293 Cutaneous Microcirculation in Hypoxemic Patients Suffering from Severe Cardiopulmonary Disease. A Laser Doppler Study Csiki, Zoltan, Czirjak, Laszlo, Möller, Karl O., Nagy, Tibor, Andras, Csilla, Szegedi, Gyula ..... 295 A Generalized Diagnostic Algorithm Based on Fluorescence Data for the Atherosclerosis Yova, Dido, Politopoulos, Costas, Gonis, Helen, Papaodysseus, Costas ..... 297

1.5 Track V: Radiotherapy

1.5.1 Radiotherapy The Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Station for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the FiR 1 in Otaniemi Auterinen, Iiro, Hiismäki, Pekka ..... 299 The Finnish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program - an Overview on Scientific Projects Savolainen, Sauli, Kallio, Merja, Auterinen, Iiro, Seppälä, Tiina, Vähätalo, Jyrki, Kulvik, Martti ..... 301 The Use of TL Detectors for Dose Estimations in Radioimmunotherapy Aschan, Carita, Toivonen, Matti, Lampinen, Juha, Kairemo, Kalevi, Savolainen, Sauli ..... 303 Collagen-water Interaction for Quantitative Estimation of Radiation-induced Subcutaneous Fibrosis by Dielectric Method Nuutinen, Jouni, Lahtinen, Tapani, Alanen, Esko, Tirkkonen, Arto, Nuortio, Lauri, Usenius,Taina ..... 305 Cellular Dosimetry in Radioimmunotherapy: Monte Carlo Simulations Kuronen, Antti, Savolainen, Sauli, Tagesson, Magnus, Kairemo, Kalevi, Strand, Sven-Erik ..... 307 Modeling Brain Tissue Substitutes for Phantoms in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Seppälä, Tiina, Vähätalo, Jyrki, Auterinen, Iiro, Savolainen, Sauli ..... 309 1.5.2 Hyperthermia Hyperthermia Induced by High Energetic Ultrasound for Controlled Tissue Destruction Albu, Cristina, Almquist, Lars-Olof, Kirkhorn, Tomas, Bolmsjö, Magnus, Holmer, Nils-Gunnar ..... 311 The Radiotechnical Problems Connected with the Creation of Heating Fields in Deep Tissues within the Range of 10-50 Mhz Vashchuk, Taras,Talaluev,Alexander ..... 313 Theoretical and Experimental Research of Heating Operate Methods for Local Microwave Hyperthermia of Prostate Volkov, Boris ..... 315 Ultrasound Intracavitary Linear Array Applicator Theory for Local Tissue Hyperthermia and Thermotherapy Popsuev, Edward, Nedogovor, Valery, Sigal, Valery ..... 317

1.6 Track VI: Biomechanics

1.6.1 Biomechanics of the Bone Tissue Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) - A Generalized Concept and Early Clinical Experience Nolte, L. P. ..... 319 Structural lnhomogeneity and Biomechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage Jurvelin, Jukka S., Arokoski, Jari P.A., Mueller, Daniel J., Helminen, Heikki J., Hunziker, Ernst B. ..... 321 Biomechanical Perforrnance of Posterior Spinal Stabilization Techniques in Severe Lumbar Anterior Column Injuries Nolte, L. P. ..... 323 1.6.1 .04 Applications of Finite Element Method to Investigation of the Geometrical Properties and the Mechanical Properties of Rat Long Bone Ma, Y., Pramila, A., Tuukkanen, J., Väänänen, K. ..... 325 An Invesitigation of Linear Viscoelasticity of Bone on the Basis of Rat Femur by using Three-Point Bending Testing Ma, Y., Sjölind, S.-G., Pramila, A., Tuukkanen, J., Väänänen, K. ..... 327 1.6.2 Biomechanics Connection of Facial Osteoreceptive Fields Irritation with Change of Stomathognathic System Biomechanics Apine, Mara ..... 329 Biomedical Applications of a High-Precision Passive Marker Based Motion Analyser Jobbagy, Akos, Gyöngy, Laszlo, Furnee, Hans E. ..... 331 Redistribution Orthoses for Metatarsalgia Treatment: Design Based on High Resolution Pedobarography Lopez, Jose E., Perez, Jose M., Orrite, Carlos ..... 333 Predictional Features of the Two Dimensional Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Laurutis, Vincas, Daunys, Gintautas ..... 335 Age Influence on the Biomechanical Functions of the Human Eye Saulgozis, Juris, Pontaga, Inese ..... 337 The Repeatability of Plantar Pressures Measured with the Electro Mechanical Film Alanen, Jouko, Haapalainen, Jouni, Kvist, Martti, Orava, Sakari ..... 339 A Biomechanical Interpretation of Presence of "Muscle-Specific" Immunoreactivity in Human Glomeruli Groma, Valerie, Freivalds, Talivaldis ..... 341 Comparative Analysis of Biomechanical Models of Skeletal Muscle Vain, Arved, Kaljuvee, Aadi ..... 343 Shape of Proximal Femor and Pelvis in Male and Female Iglie, Ales, Kersnic, Bostjan, Kralj-Iglic, Veronika, Srakar, France, Antolic, Vane, Jaklic, Anton, Pernus, Franjo, Herman, Srecko ..... 345 Equipment for Testing the Biomechanical Strength of Bones Jämsä, Timo, Jalovaara, Pekka, Peng, ZhiQi, Väänänen, Kalervo ..... 347 Biomechanical Bases of an Author's Method of Atypical Prosthetics and Orthotics of Upper Extremities of Children Dukendjiev, Evgueny ..... 349

1.7 Track VII: Ultrasonics

1.7.1 Ultrasonics FIELD: A Program for Simulating Ultrasound Systems Jensen, Jargen Arendt ..... 351 Digital Image Analysis of Ultrasound B-mode Images of Carotic Atherosclerotic Plaque: Correlation with Histological Examination Wilhjelm, J.E., Rosendal, K., Grönholdt, M.-L. M., Jespersen, S.K., Hansen, L.K., Sillesen, H. ..... 353 Influence of Formalin Fixation Prior to In Vitro Ultrasound Examination of Porcine Arteries Wilhjelm, J.E., Vogt, K., Jespersen, S.K., Nordmann, N., Sillesen, H. ..... 355 Combined Aortic Valve Disease: In Vitro Doppler and Catheter Measurements Einav, Shmuel, Zaretsky, Uri ..... 357 Diagnostics of Tibial Bone Fracture and Non-Union by Ultrasound Saulgozis, Juris, Pontaga, Inese ..... 359 Use of Contra-Sounding Principle for Detection of Ultrasound Velocity and Attenuation in Human Compact Bone Saulgozis, Juris, Pontaga, Inese, Balodis, Augusts ..... 361 Ultrasonic Echoscopy of Eye: Causal Model Lukosevicius, Arunas, Jurkonis, Rytis ..... 363 Development of Ultrasonic Transducers of Medical Diagnostics Lukosevicius, Arunas, Vaiciunas, Audrius, Burnovas, Stasys ..... 365 Optical Densitometry Measurements of Selected Areas of Ultrasonic Images Chmielorz, Wojciech, Gacek, Adam, Horoba, Krzysrtof, Wrobel, Janusz, Jezewski, Janusz ..... 367 A New Non-Invasive Monitoring Technology for Neurosurgical ICU Patients and Heatthy Persons Ragauskas, A., Daubaris, G., Pamakstis, V., Chomskis, R. ..... 369

1.8 Track VIII: Medical Informatics

1.8.1 Nonlinear Dvnamics in Medicine Characterization of Cardiovascular Diseases by Measures of Non-Linear Dynamics Voss, A., Wessel, N., Kleiner, H.J., Osterziel, K., Dietz, R. ..... 371 Nonlinear Dynamics and Cardiac Arrhythmias Kongas, O., von Hertzen, R. ..... 373 Fractality of Blood-Vessel System and Lung Kalda, Jaan. ..... 375 Nonlinear Modelling of Polyrhythmic Hand Movements Scheffczyk, Christian, Engbert, Ralf, Krampe, Ralf, Kurths, Jürgen, Rosenblum, Michael, Zaikin, Aleksei ..... 377 Nonlinear Analysis of Heart Dynamics Zebrowski, Jan J., Buchner, Teodor, Baranowski, Rafal, Poplawska, Wanda ..... 379 1.8.2 Heart Rate Variabitity Comparison of Short- and Long-Term Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Measurements from Non-Linear Dynamics Wessel, Niels, Voss, Andreas, Kurths, Juergen, Witt, Annette, Kleiner, Hans-Juergen, Dietz, Rainer ..... 381 Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Severe Autonomic Dysfunction Wiklund, Urban ..... 383 Activity of the Autonomic Nervous System and Diastolic Disfunction of the Left Ventricle in Hypertensive Patients Klemenc, Matjaz, Zimic, Nikolaj, Kranjec, Igor, Jezerssek, Pavle ..... 385 Real Time Wavelet Transform Implementation for ECG Waves Forms Detection and Heart Rate Analysis Bahoura, Mohamed, Hassani, Miloud, Hubin, Michel ..... 387 Statistical Properties of Pattem Entropy of HRV Dynamics in 24-hour Holter ECG Buchner, T., Zebrowski, J.J., Poplawska, W., Baranowski, R. ..... 389 A Computer Program to Analyze the Dynamics of QT Interval from Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Tikkanen, P.E., Sellin, L.C., Kinnunen, H.O., Linnaluoto, M.K., Huikuri, H.V. ..... 391 1.8.3 Expert Systems and Medical Informatics A WWW Site for Substaining Oncological Studies Sacile, Roberto, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Lombardo, Claudio, Wyley, Thomas ..... 393 Sleep Dynamics and Sleep Disorders: a Syntactic Approach to Hypnogram Classification Fred, Ana L.N., Paiva, T. ..... 395 Applying CommonKADS to Oncology Sacile, Roberto, Ruggiero, Carmelina, Dieng, Rose ..... 397 Using Artificial Neural Nets to Identify Ductus Arteriosus Status in Preterm Infants Ruggiero, Carmelina, Sacile, Roberto ..... 399 An Expert System for Early Recognition of Ischemic Heart Disease Gargasas, Liudas, Ruseckas, Rimtautas, Torrau, Irena, Miskinis, Vytenis, Jurkoniene, Ruta, Cizas, Marijus, Kirmonas, Anatolijus ..... 401 An Approach to Validate Intelligent Monitoring Systems in Critical Care Moret-Bonillo, Vicente, Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo, Mosqueira-Rey, Eduardo ..... 403 Formal Validation of the Intelligent Monitoring System PATRICIA Moret-Bonillo, Vicente, Mosqueira-Rey, Eduardo ..... 405 Object Oriented Design of a New, Standard File Exchange Format for Vital Signs Värri, Alpo, Hellmann, Günter, Penzel, Thomas, Nielsen, Kim D., Macerata, Alberto, Gottlieb, Lars, Hassing, Kai, Zywietz, Christoph ..... 407 An Object-Oriented Epidemiological Data Modelling System Pourabbas, E., Rafanelli, M. ..... 409 Validating the EPIC Prototype in Savona: The Local Data Base Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Sacile, Roberto, Musizzano, Elvio, Lavazelli, Pierluigi, Preglasco, Paola, Caorsi, Giovanna ..... 411 A Paradox implementation of a multimodal database for motor disable patient management Ruggiero, Carmelina, Giacomini, Mauro, Morasso, Pietro, Baratto, Luigi ..... 413 Computerized ECG Recording in Functional Tests Bauer, J.U., Schwela, H., Vainoras, A., Ruseckas, R., Korsakas, S. ..... 415

1.9 Track IX: Biomedical Signal and Image Processing

1.9.1 Wavelets and Fuzzy Logic Methods Wavelets and Biomedical Signal Processing Akay, Metin ..... 417 Wavelet Processing Techniques for Enhancement and Computer Aided Diagnosis of Digital Mammography Laine, Andrew F. ..... 419 On Time-Frequency and Wavelet Methods Flandrin, Patrick ..... 421 1.9.2 Biomedical Signal and Image Processing Detection of EEG Changes via Adaptive ltakura Distance Prahlad, Meera, Gupta, Uday, Kong, Xuan ..... 423 Analysis of the Relationship between Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure in Humans using Linear and Nonlinear Modelization Celka, P., Vetter, R., Scherrer, U., Pruvot, E., Karrakchou, M. ..... 425 Probabilistic Neural Networks for 3D Protein Structure Prediction: Why Are they Better than Fuzzy Neural Networks and Statistical Techniques Mehta, Bhavin V., Matta Vikram, Wang, Weirong ..... 427 Matching Pursuit - a Method of Evaluation and Parametrisation of Non-Stationary Signals and Transients Durka, P.J., Blinowska, K.J., Zygierewicz, J. ..... 429 Reassigned Time/Frequency Representations for Frequency Modulation Tracking Devedeux, Dominique, Duchene, Jacques, Marque, Catherine ..... 431