Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Bioelectromagnetism

Table of Contents

2.0 State-of-the-Art Lectures

2.0.01 Modern High Resolution Electroencephalography Gevins, Alan ..... 1 2.0.02 Modeling the Cardiac Electric Field van Oosterom, A. ..... 5 2.0.03 Bioelectromagnetism Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 9 2.0.04 Cell Motion and Morphology Measured with Electric Fields Giaever, Ivar, Keese, Charles R. ..... 13 2.0.05 Mathematical Theory behind Bioelectromagnetism Geselowitz, David B. .....17 2.0.06 Threshold Estimation with Field Stimulation Barr, Roger C., Plonsey, Robert ..... 21 2.0.07 Electric Field Stimulation of Cardiac Tissue Plonsey, Robert, Barr, Roger C. ..... 25

2.1 Track I: Electrocardiology

2.1.1 Imaging Cardiac Electric Activity Laplacian Electrocardiography He, Bin ..... 29 A Comparison Study Between Body Surface Potential and Laplacian in Localizing Accessory Pathways with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Wei, Daming, Harasawa, Eishi..... 31 On the Ideal Reference Potential for Unipolar Elecffocardiography and Its Practical Realization Using Body Surface Potential Distribution Okamoto, Yoshiwo, Mashima, Saburo ..... 33 Modeling of the Cardiac Forward and Inverse Problem - Magnetic Source Imaging From Magnetocardiographic Data Wach, Paul, Tilg, Bernhard, Lafer, Gerhard, Nenonen, Jukka, Katila, Toivo ..... 35 A New Approach to the Inverse Problem in Electrocardiography Lu, Weixue, Xia, Ling, Wei, Daming ..... 37 On the Use of the Surface Laplacian to Analyze Electrocardiograms Recorded on the Body Surface and on the Heart Surface Geselowitz, David B. ..... 39 An Eccentric Spheres Model to Study the Inverse Problem of Elecrocardiography from Surface Laplacian Measurements Johnston, Peter R., Kilpatrick, David ..... 41 Microcomputer-Based Cardiac Arrhyhmia Simulation Model Xia, Ling, Lu, Weixue, Duan, Yunsuo ..... 43 2.1.2 Myocardial Ishemia Diagnosis Effect of ST-Segment Measurement Point on the Exercise ECG Variables Lehtinen, Rami, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 45 Synthesized ECG Leads in Detection of Coronary Artery Disease Viik, Jari, Hyttinen, Jari, Lehtinen, Rami, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 47 Standardization of Exercise Tests in Computerized ECG Analysis System Korsakas, Stasys, Vainoras, Alfonsas, Ruseckas, Rimtautas, Miskinis, Vyenis ..... 49 Is it Possible to Diagnose Myocardial Ischemia from QRS Complex of 12 Lead ECG? Gelmanas, Girsas, Jurkonis, Vidmantas, Gargasas, Liudas ..... 51 2.1.3 Magnetocardiography Cardiomagnetic and Neuromagnetic Applications of Nitrogen Cooled SQUIDs Trahms, L., Curio, G., Drung, D., Müller, W., Steinhoff, U., Koch, H., Shen, Y.Q., Vase, P., Freltoft, T. ..... 53 Validation of Biomagnetic SourceLocalization Techniques Using Physical Thorax Phantoms Brauer, Hartmut, Tenner, Uwe, Arlt, Anne, Wiechmann, Heiko ..... 55 The Generalized Point Spread Function as an Evaluation of "Myocardial Cunent Imaging" Katscher, Ulrich, Dössel, Olaf, Fuchs, Manfred, Wischmann, Hans-Aloys, Wagner, Michael, Drenckhahn, Ralf, Hoppe, Wolfgang ..... 57 Experimental Study of Respiration Influence on Analysis of High-Resolution ECG and MCG Lewandowski, Piotr, Burghoff, Martin, Maniewski, Roman, Oeff, Michael, Trahms, Lutz ..... 59 Data-Compression in Single-channel Magnetocardiograms Endt, P., Oeff, M., Steinhoff, U., Trahms, L. ..... 61 An Induction Coil Magnetometer for Sensing Ambient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetocardiography Laboratory Walker, Simon, Astala, Jari, Haapasaari, Marja, Hämäläinen, Tiina, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 63 Nèel Relaxation of Dried Fenofluid Measured with SQUID Gradiometer in Unshielded Environment Kötitz, Roman, Schambach, Jörg, Warzemann, Lutz, Zakosarenko, Viatcheslav, Döhler, Tatjana, Weber, Peter, Trahms, Lutz, Weitschies, Werner ..... 65 Magnetocardiography with High and Low Tc SQUID-Gradiometer Devices Nowak, Hannes, Brabetz, Steffen, Giessler, Frank, Haueisen, Jens, Huonker, Ralph, Leder, Uwe, Weidl, Roland, Dörrer, Lars, Seidel, Paul, Müller, Siegfried ..... 67 Artefacts Caused by Patient Movement and Breathing in Functional MCG-Imaging Eichhorn, Joachim, Leder, Uwe, Hemmann, Annegret, Haueisen, Jens, Huck, Markus, Blum, Susanne, Pohl, Peter, Hoffmann, Maik, Kühnert, Helmut, Nowak, Hannes, Müller, Siegfried ..... 69 2.1.4 Cardiac Anisotropy Effect of Cardiac Anisotropy on Body Surface Potentials Investigated by Comparative Simulation of Isotropic and Anisotropic Heart Models Wei, Daming ..... 71 The Effect of Muscle Fiber Curvature on Cardiac Propagation Rogers, Jack M., McCulloch, Andrew D. ..... 73 The Role of Cardiac Tissue Anisotropy in the Process of Defibrillation Trayanova, Natalia ..... 75 The Role of Anisotropic Distribution of Refractoriness in Forming Anhythmic Re-entry Shibata, Nitaro, Mitsui, Kazuyuki, Kobayashi, Kenji, Kodama, Itsuo, Hosoda, Saichi ..... 77 Myocardial Anisotropy and Electrogenesis Mashima, Saburo ..... 79 2.1.5 Modelling Cardiac Electric Sources and Fields Extremal Point Constraints in the Inverse Problem of Electrocardiography: Application to LVH Data Huiskamp, Geertjan ..... 81 Identification of Ventricular Fibre Architecture from Electrotonic Epicardial Potentials Elicited by Dipolar Stimulations: Numerical and Experimental Models Macchi, Emilio, Manghi, Massimo, Di Cola, Giulio, Groppi, Maria, Pennachio, Micol, Colli-Franzone, Piero, Guerri, Luciano, Taccardi, Bruno, Lux, Robert L. ..... 83 Application of the Visible Human Man Data to Calculate the Sensitivity of ECG Leads to Detect Myocardial Sources Hyttinen, Jari, Kauppinen, Pasi, Heinonen, Tomi, Laarne, Päivi, Eskola, Hannu, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 85 Numerical Simulation of Activation in a Bidomain Model of Cardiac Muscle Di Cola, Giulio, Macchi, E., Sanfelici, Simona ..... 87 Multipole-like Term Estimation from the Standard ECG Records Takano, Noriyuki, Lawson, Michael, Hyttinen, Jari, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 89 Numerical Study of Activation in Anisotropic Myocardium using Hodgkin-Huxley-Type Models Di Cola, Giulio, Sanfelici, Simona ..... 91 On the Analytic Solution of the Potential Distribution in an n-Shell Spherical Volume Conductor Edlinger, Günter, Pfurtscheller, Gert, Wach, Paul ..... 93 On Observability of Bioelectric Generator from Measured External Fields Titomir, Leonid I., Barinova, Natalia E. ..... 95 2.1.6 Epicardial and Body Surface Mapping Determination of Epicardial Potentials Using Aimed Leads Beetner, D.G., Ambos, H.D., Cain, M.E., Arthur, R.M. ..... 97 Telemetering Equipment and Optimal Lead System for Electrocardiographic Mapping Titomir, Leonid I., Blatov, Igor V., Trunov, Vladimir G., Aidu, Eduard A.I., Barinova, Natalia E. ..... 99 Origin of Epicardial ST Depression in the Ischaemic Sheep Model Li, Danshi, Yong, Ah Chot, Pluta, Wojciech, Kilpatrick, David ..... 101 Calculating the Maps of Epicardial Potentials for Homogeneous and Non-homogenous Models of Torso Using the Computer Simulation Method Czerwinska, Alina, Doros, Marek, Kolebska, Krystyna, Sypniewska, Zofra ..... 103 Formation of Cardioelectric Field on Ventricular Epicardium and Body Surface in Animals with Different Myocardium Activation Patterns Roshchevsky, Michail P., Shmakov, Dmitry N., Roshchevskaya, Irina M. ..... 105 A Body Surface Potential Mapping System in Clinical Use Simelius, K., Tierala, I., Jokiniemi, T., Nenonen, J., Toivonen, L., Katila, T. ..... 107 Bundle Branch Reentry in a 3D Cellular Automata Model of the Human Heart Fleischmann, Paul H., Wach, Paul ..... 109 Epicardial and Endocardial Potential Mapping of ST Elevation in Experimental Myocardial Infarction Li, Danshi, Yong, Ah Chot, Pluta, Wojciech, Kilpatrick ,David ..... 111 Determination of Epicardial Isochrones for the Diagnosis of Dysrythmia Czerwinska, Alina, Doros, Marek, Kolebska, Krystyna, Poljakova, Irina P., Sypniewska, Zofra ..... 113 2.1.7 ECG Signal Processing Analyzing ECG Signals with Continuous Probability Hidden Markow Models Koski, Antti ..... 115 Non-Invasive Risk Modeling after Myocardial Infarction Reinhardt, Lutz, Mäkijärvi, Markku, Fetsch, Thomas, Montonen, Juha, Katila, Toivo, Breithardt, Günter ..... 117 Approach to the Human ECG with Periodic Orbits Vosschulte, Paul, Reinhardt, Lutz, Fetsch, Thomas ..... 119 New Techniques for Serial ECG/VCG Analysis Sunemark, Max, Edenbrandt, Lars, Holst, Holger, Sörnmo, Leif ..... 121 The Best Digital Filter for P-Wave Signal-Averaged ECG Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa, Piatkowski, Adam, Opolski, Grzegorz ..... 123 How Many Parameters of P-Wave Signal-Averaged ECG are Optimal for Discrimination of Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa, Opolski, Grzegorz, Pi4tkowski, Adam ..... 125 Compound Method of Signal-Averaged ECG of P-Wave for Patient Identification with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa, Piatkowski, Adam , Opolski, Grzegorz, Scislo, Piotr ..... 127

2.2 Track II: Electromagnetic Interaction

2.2.1 Effect of Blectromagnetic Fields on Tissue Modulated Microwave Effects on the Nervous System Hinrikus, Hiie, Riipulk, Jevgeni ..... 129 Risk of Childhood Leukemia in Households near High Power Lines Lin, Ruey S., Lee, Wei-Chin, Li, Chung-Yi. ..... 131 Growth and Stability driven by Magnetic Field D'Ambrogio, E.G. ..... 133 Simulation of Breast Tissues Temperature Measurement using Dicke Radiometer by FDTD Method Riipulk, Jevgeni, Hinrikus, Hiie, Beilenhoff, Klaus, Hartnagel, Hans ..... 135 Can the Autokinetic Effect be used to Detect Effects of Magnetic Fields? Keitel, Jürgen ..... 137 2.2.2 Electromagnetic Phenomena on Cellular Level ls Selectivity of Protein Interactions Electromagnetic in Nature? Cosic, Irena ..... 139 Microelectrode Detected Electron Spin Resonance (MEDESR) Signals of Free Radicals in Electrolyte Solutions Yokoyama, H., Satoh, T., Ohya-Nishiguchi, H., Kamada, H., Kasai, N., Matsue, T. ..... l4l Method for Simultaneous Detection of Action Potentials and Ion Channel Openings in a Single Cell Linne, Marja-Leena, Jalonen, Tuula O. ..... 143

2.3 Track III: Bioimpedance

2.3.1 Skin Impedance Quantification of Skin and Muscosal Reactions by Electrical Impedance Ollmar, Stig ..... 145 Interpretation of Impedance Data of Stripped Skin Supported by Historical Findings Nicander, Ingrid, Lundh Rozell, Barbro, Emtestam, Lennart, Ollmar, Stig ..... 147 Improved Body Water Estimation by Skin-electrode Interface Modeling in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Fiorini, R.A., Dacquino, G.F., Sivo, M., Arrigo, G., Bucci, R., Colasanti, G., Selicato, L., D'Amico. G ..... 149 2.3.2 Blood and Circulatory System Impedance Respiration and Pulse Pressure Influence Cerebral Circulation in lnfants with Periintraventricular Haemorrhage - Transcephalic Electrical Impedance and Mar-modelling Approach Grönlund, Juhani, Kero, Penffi, Korvenranta, Heikki, Korhonen, Ilkka, Jalonen, Jarmo, Äärimaa, Tuula, Välimäki, Ilkka ..... 151 Calculation of Impedance Cardiography Measurement Sensitivity - Application of Reciprocity Kauppinen, Pasi, Hyttinen, Jari, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 153 Frequency Characteristics of Flowing Blood Fujii, Mamiko, Sakamoto, Katsuyuki, Kanai, Hiroshi ..... 155 Transbronchial Regional Electroplethysmography of Lungs Mazhbich, Boris I., Gutman, Alexander I., Manevich, Isaak Z. ..... 157 Impedance Method for Pulmonary Blood Flow Assessment Palko, Tadeusz ..... 159 Simultaneous Assessment of Blood Flow in Central and Cerebral Circulatory System during Variable Gravitational Test Conditions Walichnowski, Wlodzimierz, Skibniewski, Franciszek, Saganiak, Ryszard ..... 161 Reliability of Whole-Body Impedance Cardiography in the Measurement of Cardiac Output Kööbi, Tiit, Kaukinen, Seppo, Turjanmaa, Väinö M.H., Uusitalo, Arto J. ..... 163 2.3.3 Bioimpedance Instrumentation Subspace Regularization Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography Vauhkonen, M., Vadasz, D., Karjalainen, P.A., Kaipio, J.P. ..... 165 Current Mode Signal Processing in Lock-in Instruments for Electrical Bio-impedance Measurement Min, Mart, Parve, Toomas ..... 167 Separation of Electrode Polarization from Bioimpedance Data Martinsen, Örjan G., Grimnes, Sverre, Nilsen, Simen H. ..... 169 Modelling Tissue Pressure Changes in Lower Extremities Tonkovic, Stanko, Tonkovic, Ivana, Petrunic, Mladen ..... 171 Impedance Spectroscopy on Plant Tissues Repo, Tapani, Hiekkala, Panu, Leinonen, Mikko, Pääkkönen, Timo, Ryyppö, Arja ..... 173 Measurement System by Impedance Method for Investigations of Hemodynamic Responses of Cardiovascular System using Combined LBNP and Orthostatic Stimuli Walichnowski, Wlodzimierz, Skibniewski, Franciszek, Pekalski, Roman ..... 175 Sensor Position Measurement for Electroimpedance Tomograph Molebny, V.V., Lionheart, W.R.B., Vovk, P.P., Mykytenko, Y.H., Gouz, V.I. ..... 177 Measuring System of Impedance Pharyngography for Diagnosis of Swallowing Disorders Yamamoto, Yoshitake, Nakamura, Takao, Seki, Yasuhiko, Akashi, Ken ..... 179 Triple - Frequency Electroimpedance Method for Evaluation of Body Water Compartments Nawarycz, Tadeusz, Jankowski, Jerry, Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia, Baszczynski, Jan ..... 181 Physiological Measurement Based on Foucault Principle: Set-up of the Problem Humal, Leo-Henn, Vedru, Jüri ..... l83 Bioengineering Support of the Cranial Osteopathy Treatment Moskalenko, Yu., Kravchenko, T., Semernia, V., Chervotok, A., Sharapov, K. ..... 185 Electrical Properties of Fish Muscle Post Mortem Martinsen, Örjan G., Grimnes, Sverre, Mirtaheri, Peyman ..... 187

2.4 Track IV: Neurophysiology

2.4.1 Evoked Potentials Some Remarks on Auditory ERPs as Deterministic Signals Pääkkönen, Ari, Karhu, Jari, Hiltunen, Jaana, Koistinen, Anu, Partanen, Juhani ..... 189 Complementary Wiener Filter for Extracting Auditory Evoked Potential Tian, Jilei, Juhola, Martti, Grönfors, Tapio ..... l9l Clustering of Pedestal Peak Parameters for Preliminary Classification Tasks of Auditory Brainstem Responses Grönfors, Tapio ..... 193 PCA Based Bayesian Estimation of Single Trial Evoked Potentials Karjalainen, P.A., Kaipio, J.P., Koistinen, A.S. ..... 195 The Analysis of Event-Related Potentials Elicited during Remembering Task Using the Sequential Difference Method Yamashita, Masaji ..... 197 Monitoring Function of Neural Pathways during Anaesthesia with Evoked EEG Bursts Hartikainen, Kaisa, Rorarius, Michael, Jäntti, Ville ..... 199 Simultaneous Estimation of Motor and Sensory Activities during a Finger Movement Endo, Hiroshi, Kizuka, Tomohiro, Masuda, Tadashi, Takeda, Tsunehiro, Kumagai, Toru, Kobayakawa, Tatsu, Morabito, Maurizio ..... 201 A New Peak-Intensity Photometer for the Calibration of Photostimulators used in ERG and FVEP Studies Mäkelä, K., Hölttä, V. ..... 203 2.4.2 EEG Signal Processing Some Aspects in Signal Analysis of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Eye Movements Juhola, Martti, Aalto, Heikki, Hirvonen, Timo, Pyykkö, Ilmari ..... 205 Dynamic Topographic Methods of Coherence Analysis of Cognitive Processes Schack, Bärbel, Weiss, Sabine, Rappelsberger, Peter ..... 207 Processing of Human EEG Data Contamined by Artefacts Kofronova, Michaela ..... 209 Multivariate and Multi-order Spectral Analysis of EEG Activity Recorded over Sensorimotor Areas during Discrete Finger Movements Andrew, Colin, Edlinger, Günter, Florian, Gernot, Pfurtscheller, Gert ..... 211 Simulation of the Oscillatory Potentials of the Electroretinogram Bellomonte, L. ..... 213 On Investigation of Phase-Locking by a Functional Model of Primary Auditory Nerves of Type I Matsuoka, Takahide, Takagi, Koji, Ono, Yoshihito ..... 215 2.4.3 Sleep Studies Automated Sleep Stage Detection Using Neural Networks Werner, Heinrich, Klöppel, Bert, Roeschke, Joachim ..... 217 Sleep Arousal Detection with Neural Network Huupponen, Eero, Värri, Alpo, Hasan, Joel, Saarinen, Jukka, Kaski, Kimmo ..... 219 Coherence Profiles of EEG Sleep Recordings Filz, Oliver, Rappelsberger, Peter, König, Herbert ..... 221 Serial Transmission System Using Manchester II Coding Applied to Sleep Laboratory Telemetry Tiihonen, Pekka, Kinnunen, Jukka ..... 223 Requirements for Automatic Sleep Spindle Detection using Artificial Neural Networks Trenker, Ernst, Rappelsberger, Peter ..... 225 Computer Aided Visual Sleep EEG Scoring Trenker, Ernst, Rappelsberger, Peter ..... 227 2.4.4 Application of Neural Networks in Neurophysiology Topographic Classification of Rolandic Spike Activity by means of Neural Networks Hoffmann, Katrin, Feucht, Martha, Witte, Herbert, Benninger,Franz, Bolten, Jens ..... 229 Estimating the Position of Characteristic Peaks in Intra-Operatively Recorded Auditory Evoked Potentials using Artificial Neural Networks van Gils, Mark J., Cluitmans, Pierre J. M. ..... 231 A Neural Network - based Approach to Spike Detection in Epileptic EEG Doering, A., Pietilä, T., Witte, H. ..... 233 Quantitative EEG (QEEG) Predicts Relapse in Patients with Chronic Alcoholism - A Combined Statistical and Neural Network Approach Winterer, G., Klöppel, B., Heinz, A., Ziller, M., Schmidt, I.G., Herrmann, W.M. ..... 235 Artificial Neural Networks and Data Dimensionality Reduction Mappings for Identification of Psychiatric Disorders in EEG Magdolen, J., Rappelsberger, P., Dorffner, G., Flexer, A., Winterer, G. ..... 237 Classification of Nerve Signals Using Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map Bogdan, Martin, Rosenstiel, Wolfgang ..... 239 Neural Network Approach to Classiff the Functional State of CNS in Case of Neurotoxic Diseases Raja, Aimur, Tuulik, Viiu, Lossman, Eerik, Meister, Ants ..... 241 Neural Network Based Method for Tracking Artefactual Pafferns in EEG Saastamoinen, Antti, Pietilä, Timo, Värri, Alpo, Saarinen, Jukka, Kaski, Kimmo ..... 243 2.4.5 EEG and MEG Systematic Distribution of the Auto Solid Angle and Related Integrals onto the Adjacent Triangles for the Node Based Boundary Element Method Wischmann, Hans-Aloys, Drenckhahn, Ralf, Wagner, Michael, Fuchs, Manfred ..... 245 Application of the Reciprocity Theorem to EEG Using a Realistic Head Model Laarne, P., Hyttinen, J., Malmivuo, J., Eskola, H. ..... 247 The Local Contribution to the Field and the Noise Induced Standard Deviation as Criteria for the Iterative Refinement of Current Density Reconstructions Fuchs, Manfred, Wischmann, Hans-Aloys, Köhler, Thomas, Wagner, Michael ..... 249 Using EIT Resistivity Estimates in EEG Inverse Problems Ollikainen, J., Vauhkonen, M., Kaipio, J.P., Karjalainen, P.A. ..... 251 Performance of Two New High Resolution EEG Technologies using Realistic MR-Constructed Subject's Head Models Babiloni, Fabio, Babiloni, Claudio, Carducci, Filippo, Fattorini, Luigi, Onorati, Paolo, Del Gaudio, Mauro, Urbano, Antonio ..... 253 Effect of Cerebrospinal Fluid on the Sensitivity Distribution of EEG and MEG Malmivuo, Jaakko, Suihko, Veikko, Eskola, Hannu ..... 255 Cortical Source Imaging from Scalp Electroencephalograms He, B., Wang, Y., Pak, S., Ling, Y. ..... 257 Approximation of Cortical EEG from Scalp Recordings Lahtinen, A., Laarne, P., Malmivuo, J., Eskola, H. ..... 259 Dipole Source Localization of Post-Movement Beta Synchronization During Foot Movement van Burik, Michiel, Pfurtscheller, Gert, Peters, Maria ..... 261 Effect of Skull and Scalp Thickness on EEG Lehtinen, Mika, Forsman, Kimmo, Malmivuo, Jaakko, Eskola, Hannu ..... 263 Inversion of Event-Related Potentials of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients to Intracranial Distributed Current Sources Ventouras, Eric, Uzunoglu, Nikos, Papageorgiou, Charalambos, Rabavilas, Andreas, Stefanis, Costas ..... 265 Electrode Cap for Simultaneous EEG and MEG Recordings Virtanen, Juha, Rinne, Teemu, Näätänen, Risto ..... 267 Asymmetry of Cortical EEG Rhythms Meretoja, A.-P., Lang, H., Kärki, T., Toivo, T., Eskola, H. ..... 269 2.4.6 Electromyography Quantitative Evaluation of Double Motor Unit Potentials' Shape Zalewska, E., Rowinska-Marcinska, K., Hausmanova-Petrusewicz, L ..... 271 A Data-Acquisition System for Combined EMG and Strength Measurements in Research on Age-Associated Changes in the Neuromuscular System van Gils, Mark J., Conwit, Robin A., Metter, E. Jeffrey, Cluitmans, Pierre J.M. ..... 273 Alterations in Electric Activity in Stomach in Diabetic Patients Suffering from Nephropathy Konkka, Ilmari, Punkkinen, Jari, Pikkarainen, Pekka, Helenius, Kari-Pekka, Turjanmaa, Väinö ..... 275 2.4.7 Electric and Magnetic Stimulation A High Pulse Rate Electric Stimulation Model: An Inferior Colliculus Unit Study Lithgow, B.J., Clark, G.M. ..... 277 The Noise Pressure Level in Magnetic Stimulation Rimpiläinen, Ilpo, Toppila, Esko, Starck, Jukka, Eskola, Hannu, Pyykkö, Ilmari. ..... 279 Development of Multi-Channel Implantable Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) System for Clinical Usage Hoshimiya, Nozomu, Higa, Hiroki, Watanabe, Takashi, Murakami, Hajime, Futami, Ryoko, Matsuki, Hidetoshi, Iguchi, Yasutaka, Handa, Yasunobu, Takahashi, Koro, Furukawa, Takashi, Ogasawara, Yoshikazu, Shimotomai, Takashi ..... 281 Measurement of Muscle Belly Response to Electrical Stimulation Knez, Natasa, Valencic, Vojko ..... 283 Electrical Transcranial Stimulator for Monitoring during Neurosurgery Suihko, Veikko, Eskola, Hannu, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 285 Three-electrode vs. Unifocal Technique in Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Suihko, Veikko, Malmivuo, Jaakko, Eskola, Hannu ..... 287