Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Bioelectromagnetism

Table of Contents


2.0 State-of-the-Art Lectures

2.0.01 Modern High Resolution Electroencephalography Gevins, Alan ..... 1 2.0.02 Modeling the Cardiac Electric Field van Oosterom, A. ..... 5 2.0.03 Bioelectromagnetism Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 9 2.0.04 Cell Motion and Morphology Measured with Electric Fields Giaever, Ivar, Keese, Charles R. ..... 13 2.0.05 Mathematical Theory behind Bioelectromagnetism Geselowitz, David B. .....17 2.0.06 Threshold Estimation with Field Stimulation Barr, Roger C., Plonsey, Robert ..... 21 2.0.07 Electric Field Stimulation of Cardiac Tissue Plonsey, Robert, Barr, Roger C. ..... 25

2.1 Track I: Electrocardiology

2.1.1 Imaging Cardiac Electric Activity 2.1.1.01 Laplacian Electrocardiography He, Bin ..... 29 2.1.1.02 A Comparison Study Between Body Surface Potential and Laplacian in Localizing Accessory Pathways with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Wei, Daming, Harasawa, Eishi..... 31 2.1.1.03 On the Ideal Reference Potential for Unipolar Elecffocardiography and Its Practical Realization Using Body Surface Potential Distribution Okamoto, Yoshiwo, Mashima, Saburo ..... 33 2.1.1.04 Modeling of the Cardiac Forward and Inverse Problem - Magnetic Source Imaging From Magnetocardiographic Data Wach, Paul, Tilg, Bernhard, Lafer, Gerhard, Nenonen, Jukka, Katila, Toivo ..... 35 2.1.1.05 A New Approach to the Inverse Problem in Electrocardiography Lu, Weixue, Xia, Ling, Wei, Daming ..... 37 2.1.1.06 On the Use of the Surface Laplacian to Analyze Electrocardiograms Recorded on the Body Surface and on the Heart Surface Geselowitz, David B. ..... 39 2.1.1.07 An Eccentric Spheres Model to Study the Inverse Problem of Elecrocardiography from Surface Laplacian Measurements Johnston, Peter R., Kilpatrick, David ..... 41 2.1.1.08 Microcomputer-Based Cardiac Arrhyhmia Simulation Model Xia, Ling, Lu, Weixue, Duan, Yunsuo ..... 43 2.1.2 Myocardial Ishemia Diagnosis 2.1.2.01 Effect of ST-Segment Measurement Point on the Exercise ECG Variables Lehtinen, Rami, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 45 2.1.2.02 Synthesized ECG Leads in Detection of Coronary Artery Disease Viik, Jari, Hyttinen, Jari, Lehtinen, Rami, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 47 2.1.2.03 Standardization of Exercise Tests in Computerized ECG Analysis System Korsakas, Stasys, Vainoras, Alfonsas, Ruseckas, Rimtautas, Miskinis, Vyenis ..... 49 2.1.2.04 Is it Possible to Diagnose Myocardial Ischemia from QRS Complex of 12 Lead ECG? Gelmanas, Girsas, Jurkonis, Vidmantas, Gargasas, Liudas ..... 51 2.1.3 Magnetocardiography 2.1.3.01 Cardiomagnetic and Neuromagnetic Applications of Nitrogen Cooled SQUIDs Trahms, L., Curio, G., Drung, D., Müller, W., Steinhoff, U., Koch, H., Shen, Y.Q., Vase, P., Freltoft, T. ..... 53 2.1.3.02 Validation of Biomagnetic SourceLocalization Techniques Using Physical Thorax Phantoms Brauer, Hartmut, Tenner, Uwe, Arlt, Anne, Wiechmann, Heiko ..... 55 2.1.3.03 The Generalized Point Spread Function as an Evaluation of "Myocardial Cunent Imaging" Katscher, Ulrich, Dössel, Olaf, Fuchs, Manfred, Wischmann, Hans-Aloys, Wagner, Michael, Drenckhahn, Ralf, Hoppe, Wolfgang ..... 57 2.1.3.04 Experimental Study of Respiration Influence on Analysis of High-Resolution ECG and MCG Lewandowski, Piotr, Burghoff, Martin, Maniewski, Roman, Oeff, Michael, Trahms, Lutz ..... 59 2.1.3.05 Data-Compression in Single-channel Magnetocardiograms Endt, P., Oeff, M., Steinhoff, U., Trahms, L. ..... 61 2.1.3.06 An Induction Coil Magnetometer for Sensing Ambient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetocardiography Laboratory Walker, Simon, Astala, Jari, Haapasaari, Marja, Hämäläinen, Tiina, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 63 2.1.3.07 Nèel Relaxation of Dried Fenofluid Measured with SQUID Gradiometer in Unshielded Environment Kötitz, Roman, Schambach, Jörg, Warzemann, Lutz, Zakosarenko, Viatcheslav, Döhler, Tatjana, Weber, Peter, Trahms, Lutz, Weitschies, Werner ..... 65 2.1.3.08 Magnetocardiography with High and Low Tc SQUID-Gradiometer Devices Nowak, Hannes, Brabetz, Steffen, Giessler, Frank, Haueisen, Jens, Huonker, Ralph, Leder, Uwe, Weidl, Roland, Dörrer, Lars, Seidel, Paul, Müller, Siegfried ..... 67 2.1.3.09 Artefacts Caused by Patient Movement and Breathing in Functional MCG-Imaging Eichhorn, Joachim, Leder, Uwe, Hemmann, Annegret, Haueisen, Jens, Huck, Markus, Blum, Susanne, Pohl, Peter, Hoffmann, Maik, Kühnert, Helmut, Nowak, Hannes, Müller, Siegfried ..... 69 2.1.4 Cardiac Anisotropy 2.1.4.01 Effect of Cardiac Anisotropy on Body Surface Potentials Investigated by Comparative Simulation of Isotropic and Anisotropic Heart Models Wei, Daming ..... 71 2.1.4.02 The Effect of Muscle Fiber Curvature on Cardiac Propagation Rogers, Jack M., McCulloch, Andrew D. ..... 73 2.1.4.03 The Role of Cardiac Tissue Anisotropy in the Process of Defibrillation Trayanova, Natalia ..... 75 2.1.4.04 The Role of Anisotropic Distribution of Refractoriness in Forming Anhythmic Re-entry Shibata, Nitaro, Mitsui, Kazuyuki, Kobayashi, Kenji, Kodama, Itsuo, Hosoda, Saichi ..... 77 2.1.4.05 Myocardial Anisotropy and Electrogenesis Mashima, Saburo ..... 79 2.1.5 Modelling Cardiac Electric Sources and Fields 2.1.5.01 Extremal Point Constraints in the Inverse Problem of Electrocardiography: Application to LVH Data Huiskamp, Geertjan ..... 81 2.1.5.02 Identification of Ventricular Fibre Architecture from Electrotonic Epicardial Potentials Elicited by Dipolar Stimulations: Numerical and Experimental Models Macchi, Emilio, Manghi, Massimo, Di Cola, Giulio, Groppi, Maria, Pennachio, Micol, Colli-Franzone, Piero, Guerri, Luciano, Taccardi, Bruno, Lux, Robert L. ..... 83 2.1.5.03 Application of the Visible Human Man Data to Calculate the Sensitivity of ECG Leads to Detect Myocardial Sources Hyttinen, Jari, Kauppinen, Pasi, Heinonen, Tomi, Laarne, Päivi, Eskola, Hannu, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 85 2.1.5.04 Numerical Simulation of Activation in a Bidomain Model of Cardiac Muscle Di Cola, Giulio, Macchi, E., Sanfelici, Simona ..... 87 2.1.5.05 Multipole-like Term Estimation from the Standard ECG Records Takano, Noriyuki, Lawson, Michael, Hyttinen, Jari, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 89 2.1.5.06 Numerical Study of Activation in Anisotropic Myocardium using Hodgkin-Huxley-Type Models Di Cola, Giulio, Sanfelici, Simona ..... 91 2.1.5.07 On the Analytic Solution of the Potential Distribution in an n-Shell Spherical Volume Conductor Edlinger, Günter, Pfurtscheller, Gert, Wach, Paul ..... 93 2.1.5.08 On Observability of Bioelectric Generator from Measured External Fields Titomir, Leonid I., Barinova, Natalia E. ..... 95 2.1.6 Epicardial and Body Surface Mapping 2.1.6.01 Determination of Epicardial Potentials Using Aimed Leads Beetner, D.G., Ambos, H.D., Cain, M.E., Arthur, R.M. ..... 97 2.1.6.02 Telemetering Equipment and Optimal Lead System for Electrocardiographic Mapping Titomir, Leonid I., Blatov, Igor V., Trunov, Vladimir G., Aidu, Eduard A.I., Barinova, Natalia E. ..... 99 2.1.6.03 Origin of Epicardial ST Depression in the Ischaemic Sheep Model Li, Danshi, Yong, Ah Chot, Pluta, Wojciech, Kilpatrick, David ..... 101 2.1.6.04 Calculating the Maps of Epicardial Potentials for Homogeneous and Non-homogenous Models of Torso Using the Computer Simulation Method Czerwinska, Alina, Doros, Marek, Kolebska, Krystyna, Sypniewska, Zofra ..... 103 2.1.6.05 Formation of Cardioelectric Field on Ventricular Epicardium and Body Surface in Animals with Different Myocardium Activation Patterns Roshchevsky, Michail P., Shmakov, Dmitry N., Roshchevskaya, Irina M. ..... 105 2.1.6.06 A Body Surface Potential Mapping System in Clinical Use Simelius, K., Tierala, I., Jokiniemi, T., Nenonen, J., Toivonen, L., Katila, T. ..... 107 2.1.6.07 Bundle Branch Reentry in a 3D Cellular Automata Model of the Human Heart Fleischmann, Paul H., Wach, Paul ..... 109 2.1.6.08 Epicardial and Endocardial Potential Mapping of ST Elevation in Experimental Myocardial Infarction Li, Danshi, Yong, Ah Chot, Pluta, Wojciech, Kilpatrick ,David ..... 111 2.1.6.09 Determination of Epicardial Isochrones for the Diagnosis of Dysrythmia Czerwinska, Alina, Doros, Marek, Kolebska, Krystyna, Poljakova, Irina P., Sypniewska, Zofra ..... 113 2.1.7 ECG Signal Processing 2.1.7.01 Analyzing ECG Signals with Continuous Probability Hidden Markow Models Koski, Antti ..... 115 2.1.7.02 Non-Invasive Risk Modeling after Myocardial Infarction Reinhardt, Lutz, Mäkijärvi, Markku, Fetsch, Thomas, Montonen, Juha, Katila, Toivo, Breithardt, Günter ..... 117 2.1.7.03 Approach to the Human ECG with Periodic Orbits Vosschulte, Paul, Reinhardt, Lutz, Fetsch, Thomas ..... 119 2.1.7.04 New Techniques for Serial ECG/VCG Analysis Sunemark, Max, Edenbrandt, Lars, Holst, Holger, Sörnmo, Leif ..... 121 2.1.7.05 The Best Digital Filter for P-Wave Signal-Averaged ECG Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa, Piatkowski, Adam, Opolski, Grzegorz ..... 123 2.1.7.06 How Many Parameters of P-Wave Signal-Averaged ECG are Optimal for Discrimination of Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa, Opolski, Grzegorz, Pi4tkowski, Adam ..... 125 2.1.7.07 Compound Method of Signal-Averaged ECG of P-Wave for Patient Identification with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa, Piatkowski, Adam , Opolski, Grzegorz, Scislo, Piotr ..... 127

2.2 Track II: Electromagnetic Interaction

2.2.1 Effect of Blectromagnetic Fields on Tissue 2.2.1.01 Modulated Microwave Effects on the Nervous System Hinrikus, Hiie, Riipulk, Jevgeni ..... 129 2.2.1.02 Risk of Childhood Leukemia in Households near High Power Lines Lin, Ruey S., Lee, Wei-Chin, Li, Chung-Yi. ..... 131 2.2.1.03 Growth and Stability driven by Magnetic Field D'Ambrogio, E.G. ..... 133 2.2.1.04 Simulation of Breast Tissues Temperature Measurement using Dicke Radiometer by FDTD Method Riipulk, Jevgeni, Hinrikus, Hiie, Beilenhoff, Klaus, Hartnagel, Hans ..... 135 2.2.1.05 Can the Autokinetic Effect be used to Detect Effects of Magnetic Fields? Keitel, Jürgen ..... 137 2.2.2 Electromagnetic Phenomena on Cellular Level 2.2.2.01 ls Selectivity of Protein Interactions Electromagnetic in Nature? Cosic, Irena ..... 139 2.2.2.02 Microelectrode Detected Electron Spin Resonance (MEDESR) Signals of Free Radicals in Electrolyte Solutions Yokoyama, H., Satoh, T., Ohya-Nishiguchi, H., Kamada, H., Kasai, N., Matsue, T. ..... l4l 2.2.2.03 Method for Simultaneous Detection of Action Potentials and Ion Channel Openings in a Single Cell Linne, Marja-Leena, Jalonen, Tuula O. ..... 143

2.3 Track III: Bioimpedance

2.3.1 Skin Impedance 2.3.1.01 Quantification of Skin and Muscosal Reactions by Electrical Impedance Ollmar, Stig ..... 145 2.3.1.02 Interpretation of Impedance Data of Stripped Skin Supported by Historical Findings Nicander, Ingrid, Lundh Rozell, Barbro, Emtestam, Lennart, Ollmar, Stig ..... 147 2.3.1.03 Improved Body Water Estimation by Skin-electrode Interface Modeling in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Fiorini, R.A., Dacquino, G.F., Sivo, M., Arrigo, G., Bucci, R., Colasanti, G., Selicato, L., D'Amico. G ..... 149 2.3.2 Blood and Circulatory System Impedance 2.3.2.01 Respiration and Pulse Pressure Influence Cerebral Circulation in lnfants with Periintraventricular Haemorrhage - Transcephalic Electrical Impedance and Mar-modelling Approach Grönlund, Juhani, Kero, Penffi, Korvenranta, Heikki, Korhonen, Ilkka, Jalonen, Jarmo, Äärimaa, Tuula, Välimäki, Ilkka ..... 151 2.3.2.02 Calculation of Impedance Cardiography Measurement Sensitivity - Application of Reciprocity Kauppinen, Pasi, Hyttinen, Jari, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 153 2.3.2.03 Frequency Characteristics of Flowing Blood Fujii, Mamiko, Sakamoto, Katsuyuki, Kanai, Hiroshi ..... 155 2.3.2.04 Transbronchial Regional Electroplethysmography of Lungs Mazhbich, Boris I., Gutman, Alexander I., Manevich, Isaak Z. ..... 157 2.3.2.05 Impedance Method for Pulmonary Blood Flow Assessment Palko, Tadeusz ..... 159 2.3.2.06 Simultaneous Assessment of Blood Flow in Central and Cerebral Circulatory System during Variable Gravitational Test Conditions Walichnowski, Wlodzimierz, Skibniewski, Franciszek, Saganiak, Ryszard ..... 161 2.3.2.07 Reliability of Whole-Body Impedance Cardiography in the Measurement of Cardiac Output Kööbi, Tiit, Kaukinen, Seppo, Turjanmaa, Väinö M.H., Uusitalo, Arto J. ..... 163 2.3.3 Bioimpedance Instrumentation 2.3.3.01 Subspace Regularization Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography Vauhkonen, M., Vadasz, D., Karjalainen, P.A., Kaipio, J.P. ..... 165 2.3.3.02 Current Mode Signal Processing in Lock-in Instruments for Electrical Bio-impedance Measurement Min, Mart, Parve, Toomas ..... 167 2.3.3.03 Separation of Electrode Polarization from Bioimpedance Data Martinsen, Örjan G., Grimnes, Sverre, Nilsen, Simen H. ..... 169 2.3.3.04 Modelling Tissue Pressure Changes in Lower Extremities Tonkovic, Stanko, Tonkovic, Ivana, Petrunic, Mladen ..... 171 2.3.3.05 Impedance Spectroscopy on Plant Tissues Repo, Tapani, Hiekkala, Panu, Leinonen, Mikko, Pääkkönen, Timo, Ryyppö, Arja ..... 173 2.3.3.06 Measurement System by Impedance Method for Investigations of Hemodynamic Responses of Cardiovascular System using Combined LBNP and Orthostatic Stimuli Walichnowski, Wlodzimierz, Skibniewski, Franciszek, Pekalski, Roman ..... 175 2.3.3.07 Sensor Position Measurement for Electroimpedance Tomograph Molebny, V.V., Lionheart, W.R.B., Vovk, P.P., Mykytenko, Y.H., Gouz, V.I. ..... 177 2.3.3.08 Measuring System of Impedance Pharyngography for Diagnosis of Swallowing Disorders Yamamoto, Yoshitake, Nakamura, Takao, Seki, Yasuhiko, Akashi, Ken ..... 179 2.3.3.09 Triple - Frequency Electroimpedance Method for Evaluation of Body Water Compartments Nawarycz, Tadeusz, Jankowski, Jerry, Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia, Baszczynski, Jan ..... 181 2.3.3.10 Physiological Measurement Based on Foucault Principle: Set-up of the Problem Humal, Leo-Henn, Vedru, Jüri ..... l83 2.3.3.11 Bioengineering Support of the Cranial Osteopathy Treatment Moskalenko, Yu., Kravchenko, T., Semernia, V., Chervotok, A., Sharapov, K. ..... 185 2.3.3.12 Electrical Properties of Fish Muscle Post Mortem Martinsen, Örjan G., Grimnes, Sverre, Mirtaheri, Peyman ..... 187

2.4 Track IV: Neurophysiology

2.4.1 Evoked Potentials 2.4.1.01 Some Remarks on Auditory ERPs as Deterministic Signals Pääkkönen, Ari, Karhu, Jari, Hiltunen, Jaana, Koistinen, Anu, Partanen, Juhani ..... 189 2.4.1.02 Complementary Wiener Filter for Extracting Auditory Evoked Potential Tian, Jilei, Juhola, Martti, Grönfors, Tapio ..... l9l 2.4.1.03 Clustering of Pedestal Peak Parameters for Preliminary Classification Tasks of Auditory Brainstem Responses Grönfors, Tapio ..... 193 2.4.1.04 PCA Based Bayesian Estimation of Single Trial Evoked Potentials Karjalainen, P.A., Kaipio, J.P., Koistinen, A.S. ..... 195 2.4.1.05 The Analysis of Event-Related Potentials Elicited during Remembering Task Using the Sequential Difference Method Yamashita, Masaji ..... 197 2.4.1.06 Monitoring Function of Neural Pathways during Anaesthesia with Evoked EEG Bursts Hartikainen, Kaisa, Rorarius, Michael, Jäntti, Ville ..... 199 2.4.1.07 Simultaneous Estimation of Motor and Sensory Activities during a Finger Movement Endo, Hiroshi, Kizuka, Tomohiro, Masuda, Tadashi, Takeda, Tsunehiro, Kumagai, Toru, Kobayakawa, Tatsu, Morabito, Maurizio ..... 201 2.4.1.08 A New Peak-Intensity Photometer for the Calibration of Photostimulators used in ERG and FVEP Studies Mäkelä, K., Hölttä, V. ..... 203 2.4.2 EEG Signal Processing 2.4.2.01 Some Aspects in Signal Analysis of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Eye Movements Juhola, Martti, Aalto, Heikki, Hirvonen, Timo, Pyykkö, Ilmari ..... 205 2.4.2.02 Dynamic Topographic Methods of Coherence Analysis of Cognitive Processes Schack, Bärbel, Weiss, Sabine, Rappelsberger, Peter ..... 207 2.4.2.03 Processing of Human EEG Data Contamined by Artefacts Kofronova, Michaela ..... 209 2.4.2.04 Multivariate and Multi-order Spectral Analysis of EEG Activity Recorded over Sensorimotor Areas during Discrete Finger Movements Andrew, Colin, Edlinger, Günter, Florian, Gernot, Pfurtscheller, Gert ..... 211 2.4.2.05 Simulation of the Oscillatory Potentials of the Electroretinogram Bellomonte, L. ..... 213 2.4.2.06 On Investigation of Phase-Locking by a Functional Model of Primary Auditory Nerves of Type I Matsuoka, Takahide, Takagi, Koji, Ono, Yoshihito ..... 215 2.4.3 Sleep Studies 2.4.3.01 Automated Sleep Stage Detection Using Neural Networks Werner, Heinrich, Klöppel, Bert, Roeschke, Joachim ..... 217 2.4.3.02 Sleep Arousal Detection with Neural Network Huupponen, Eero, Värri, Alpo, Hasan, Joel, Saarinen, Jukka, Kaski, Kimmo ..... 219 2.4.3.03 Coherence Profiles of EEG Sleep Recordings Filz, Oliver, Rappelsberger, Peter, König, Herbert ..... 221 2.4.3.04 Serial Transmission System Using Manchester II Coding Applied to Sleep Laboratory Telemetry Tiihonen, Pekka, Kinnunen, Jukka ..... 223 2.4.3.05 Requirements for Automatic Sleep Spindle Detection using Artificial Neural Networks Trenker, Ernst, Rappelsberger, Peter ..... 225 2.4.3.06 Computer Aided Visual Sleep EEG Scoring Trenker, Ernst, Rappelsberger, Peter ..... 227 2.4.4 Application of Neural Networks in Neurophysiology 2.4.4.01 Topographic Classification of Rolandic Spike Activity by means of Neural Networks Hoffmann, Katrin, Feucht, Martha, Witte, Herbert, Benninger,Franz, Bolten, Jens ..... 229 2.4.4.02 Estimating the Position of Characteristic Peaks in Intra-Operatively Recorded Auditory Evoked Potentials using Artificial Neural Networks van Gils, Mark J., Cluitmans, Pierre J. M. ..... 231 2.4.4.03 A Neural Network - based Approach to Spike Detection in Epileptic EEG Doering, A., Pietilä, T., Witte, H. ..... 233 2.4.4.04 Quantitative EEG (QEEG) Predicts Relapse in Patients with Chronic Alcoholism - A Combined Statistical and Neural Network Approach Winterer, G., Klöppel, B., Heinz, A., Ziller, M., Schmidt, I.G., Herrmann, W.M. ..... 235 2.4.4.05 Artificial Neural Networks and Data Dimensionality Reduction Mappings for Identification of Psychiatric Disorders in EEG Magdolen, J., Rappelsberger, P., Dorffner, G., Flexer, A., Winterer, G. ..... 237 2.4.4.06 Classification of Nerve Signals Using Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map Bogdan, Martin, Rosenstiel, Wolfgang ..... 239 2.4.4.07 Neural Network Approach to Classiff the Functional State of CNS in Case of Neurotoxic Diseases Raja, Aimur, Tuulik, Viiu, Lossman, Eerik, Meister, Ants ..... 241 2.4.4.08 Neural Network Based Method for Tracking Artefactual Pafferns in EEG Saastamoinen, Antti, Pietilä, Timo, Värri, Alpo, Saarinen, Jukka, Kaski, Kimmo ..... 243 2.4.5 EEG and MEG 2.4.5.01 Systematic Distribution of the Auto Solid Angle and Related Integrals onto the Adjacent Triangles for the Node Based Boundary Element Method Wischmann, Hans-Aloys, Drenckhahn, Ralf, Wagner, Michael, Fuchs, Manfred ..... 245 2.4.5.02 Application of the Reciprocity Theorem to EEG Using a Realistic Head Model Laarne, P., Hyttinen, J., Malmivuo, J., Eskola, H. ..... 247 2.4.5.03 The Local Contribution to the Field and the Noise Induced Standard Deviation as Criteria for the Iterative Refinement of Current Density Reconstructions Fuchs, Manfred, Wischmann, Hans-Aloys, Köhler, Thomas, Wagner, Michael ..... 249 2.4.5.04 Using EIT Resistivity Estimates in EEG Inverse Problems Ollikainen, J., Vauhkonen, M., Kaipio, J.P., Karjalainen, P.A. ..... 251 2.4.5.05 Performance of Two New High Resolution EEG Technologies using Realistic MR-Constructed Subject's Head Models Babiloni, Fabio, Babiloni, Claudio, Carducci, Filippo, Fattorini, Luigi, Onorati, Paolo, Del Gaudio, Mauro, Urbano, Antonio ..... 253 2.4.5.06 Effect of Cerebrospinal Fluid on the Sensitivity Distribution of EEG and MEG Malmivuo, Jaakko, Suihko, Veikko, Eskola, Hannu ..... 255 2.4.5.07 Cortical Source Imaging from Scalp Electroencephalograms He, B., Wang, Y., Pak, S., Ling, Y. ..... 257 2.4.5.08 Approximation of Cortical EEG from Scalp Recordings Lahtinen, A., Laarne, P., Malmivuo, J., Eskola, H. ..... 259 2.4.5.09 Dipole Source Localization of Post-Movement Beta Synchronization During Foot Movement van Burik, Michiel, Pfurtscheller, Gert, Peters, Maria ..... 261 2.4.5.10 Effect of Skull and Scalp Thickness on EEG Lehtinen, Mika, Forsman, Kimmo, Malmivuo, Jaakko, Eskola, Hannu ..... 263 2.4.5.11 Inversion of Event-Related Potentials of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients to Intracranial Distributed Current Sources Ventouras, Eric, Uzunoglu, Nikos, Papageorgiou, Charalambos, Rabavilas, Andreas, Stefanis, Costas ..... 265 2.4.5.12 Electrode Cap for Simultaneous EEG and MEG Recordings Virtanen, Juha, Rinne, Teemu, Näätänen, Risto ..... 267 2.4.5.13 Asymmetry of Cortical EEG Rhythms Meretoja, A.-P., Lang, H., Kärki, T., Toivo, T., Eskola, H. ..... 269 2.4.6 Electromyography 2.4.6.01 Quantitative Evaluation of Double Motor Unit Potentials' Shape Zalewska, E., Rowinska-Marcinska, K., Hausmanova-Petrusewicz, L ..... 271 2.4.6.02 A Data-Acquisition System for Combined EMG and Strength Measurements in Research on Age-Associated Changes in the Neuromuscular System van Gils, Mark J., Conwit, Robin A., Metter, E. Jeffrey, Cluitmans, Pierre J.M. ..... 273 2.4.6.03 Alterations in Electric Activity in Stomach in Diabetic Patients Suffering from Nephropathy Konkka, Ilmari, Punkkinen, Jari, Pikkarainen, Pekka, Helenius, Kari-Pekka, Turjanmaa, Väinö ..... 275 2.4.7 Electric and Magnetic Stimulation 2.4.7.01 A High Pulse Rate Electric Stimulation Model: An Inferior Colliculus Unit Study Lithgow, B.J., Clark, G.M. ..... 277 2.4.7.02 The Noise Pressure Level in Magnetic Stimulation Rimpiläinen, Ilpo, Toppila, Esko, Starck, Jukka, Eskola, Hannu, Pyykkö, Ilmari. ..... 279 2.4.7.03 Development of Multi-Channel Implantable Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) System for Clinical Usage Hoshimiya, Nozomu, Higa, Hiroki, Watanabe, Takashi, Murakami, Hajime, Futami, Ryoko, Matsuki, Hidetoshi, Iguchi, Yasutaka, Handa, Yasunobu, Takahashi, Koro, Furukawa, Takashi, Ogasawara, Yoshikazu, Shimotomai, Takashi ..... 281 2.4.7.04 Measurement of Muscle Belly Response to Electrical Stimulation Knez, Natasa, Valencic, Vojko ..... 283 2.4.7.05 Electrical Transcranial Stimulator for Monitoring during Neurosurgery Suihko, Veikko, Eskola, Hannu, Malmivuo, Jaakko ..... 285 2.4.7.06 Three-electrode vs. Unifocal Technique in Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Suihko, Veikko, Malmivuo, Jaakko, Eskola, Hannu ..... 287